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Marvin H Caruthers

TitleDistinguished Professor
InstitutionUniversity of Colorado Boulder
DepartmentChemistry & Biochemistry
Phone303/492-6095

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    R01GM021120     (CARUTHERS, MARVIN H)Dec 1, 1977 - Jun 30, 1994
    NIH/NIGMS
    DNA REGULATORY REGIONS OF CHROMOSOMES
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01GM025680     (CARUTHERS, MARVIN H)Sep 1, 1978 - May 31, 2001
    NIH/NIGMS
    CHEMICAL AND ENZYMATIC STUDIES WITH SYNTHETIC DNA/RNA
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R13CA053494     (CARUTHERS, MARVIN H)Jan 15, 1991 - Jan 14, 1992
    NIH/NCI
    ANTISENSE DNA THERAPEUTICS
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Paul S, Roy S, Monfregola L, Shang S, Shoemaker R, Caruthers MH. Correction to "Oxidative Substitution of Boranephosphonate Diesters as a Route to Post-synthetically Modified DNA". J Am Chem Soc. 2017 Sep 27; 139(38):13586. PMID: 28915019.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Roy S, Olesiak M, Shang S, Caruthers MH. Correction to "Silver Nanoassemblies Constructed from Boranephosphonate DNA". J Am Chem Soc. 2017 Sep 27; 139(38):13585. PMID: 28902993.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Vejlegaard K, Paul S, Kosbar T, Wengel J, Caruthers MH. Oligodeoxynucleotides containing 2'-amino-LNA nucleotides as constrained morpholino phosphoramidate and phosphorodiamidate monomers. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2017 Jul 15; 27(14):3173-3176. PMID: 28552336.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Okochi KD, Monfregola L, Dickerson SM, McCaffrey R, Domaille DW, Yu C, Hafenstine GR, Jin Y, Cha JN, Kuchta RD, Caruthers M, Zhang W. Synthesis of Small-Molecule/DNA Hybrids through On-Bead Amide-Coupling Approach. J Org Chem. 2017 Oct 20; 82(20):10803-10811. PMID: 28282138.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Roy S, Paul S, Roy M, Kundu R, Monfregola L, Caruthers MH. Pyridinium Boranephosphonate Modified DNA Oligonucleotides. J Org Chem. 2017 Feb 03; 82(3):1420-1427. PMID: 28099007.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Paul S, Caruthers MH. Synthesis of Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligonucleotides and Their Chimeras Using Phosphoramidite Chemistry. J Am Chem Soc. 2016 Dec 07; 138(48):15663-15672. PMID: 27934012.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Monfregola L, Caruthers MH. Solid-Phase Synthesis, Hybridizing Ability, Uptake, and Nuclease Resistant Profiles of Position-Selective Cationic and Hydrophobic Phosphotriester Oligonucleotides. J Org Chem. 2015 Sep 18; 80(18):9147-58. PMID: 26317155.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Paul S, Roy S, Monfregola L, Shang S, Shoemaker R, Caruthers MH. Correction to "Oxidative Substitution of Boranephosphonate Diesters as a Route to Post-synthetically Modified DNA". J Am Chem Soc. 2015 Aug 12; 137(31):10016. PMID: 26196959.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Russell C, Roy S, Ganguly S, Qian X, Caruthers MH, Nilsson M. Formation of Silver Nanostructures by Rolling Circle Amplification Using Boranephosphonate-Modified Nucleotides. Anal Chem. 2015 Jul 07; 87(13):6660-6. PMID: 26059318.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Paul S, Roy S, Monfregola L, Shang S, Shoemaker R, Caruthers MH. Oxidative substitution of boranephosphonate diesters as a route to post-synthetically modified DNA. J Am Chem Soc. 2015 Mar 11; 137(9):3253-64. PMID: 25679520.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Matsui M, Threlfall RN, Caruthers MH, Corey DR. Effect of 2'-O-methyl/thiophosphonoacetate-modified antisense oligonucleotides on huntingtin expression in patient-derived cells. Artif DNA PNA XNA. 2014 Dec 15; 5(3):e1146391. PMID: 26865404.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Caruthers MH. Robert Letsinger: the father of synthetic DNA chemistry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Dec 23; 111(51):18098-9. PMID: 25422449; PMCID: PMC4280628.
    13. Roy S, Caruthers M. Synthesis of DNA/RNA and their analogs via phosphoramidite and H-phosphonate chemistries. Molecules. 2013 Nov 18; 18(11):14268-84. PMID: 24252996.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Roy S, Olesiak M, Shang S, Caruthers MH. Silver nanoassemblies constructed from boranephosphonate DNA. J Am Chem Soc. 2013 Apr 24; 135(16):6234-41. PMID: 23557435.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Caruthers MH. The chemical synthesis of DNA/RNA: our gift to science. J Biol Chem. 2013 Jan 11; 288(2):1420-7. PMID: 23223445; PMCID: PMC3543024.
    16. Roy S, Olesiak M, Padar P, McCuen H, Caruthers MH. Reduction of metal ions by boranephosphonate DNA. Org Biomol Chem. 2012 Dec 14; 10(46):9130-3. PMID: 23032580.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Krishna H, Caruthers MH. Alkynyl phosphonate DNA: a versatile "click"able backbone for DNA-based biological applications. J Am Chem Soc. 2012 Jul 18; 134(28):11618-31. PMID: 22612466.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Caruthers M, Wells R. Retrospective. Har Gobind Khorana (1922-2011). Science. 2011 Dec 16; 334(6062):1511. PMID: 22174242.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Threlfall RN, Torres AG, Krivenko A, Gait MJ, Caruthers MH. Synthesis and biological activity of phosphonoacetate- and thiophosphonoacetate-modified 2'-O-methyl oligoribonucleotides. Org Biomol Chem. 2012 Jan 28; 10(4):746-54. PMID: 22124653.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Dellinger DJ, Timár Z, Myerson J, Sierzchala AB, Turner J, Ferreira F, Kupihár Z, Dellinger G, Hill KW, Powell JA, Sampson JR, Caruthers MH. Streamlined process for the chemical synthesis of RNA using 2'-O-thionocarbamate-protected nucleoside phosphoramidites in the solid phase. J Am Chem Soc. 2011 Aug 03; 133(30):11540-56. PMID: 21688829.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Krishna H, Caruthers MH. Solid-phase synthesis, thermal denaturation studies, nuclease resistance, and cellular uptake of (oligodeoxyribonucleoside)methylborane phosphine-DNA chimeras. J Am Chem Soc. 2011 Jun 29; 133(25):9844-54. PMID: 21585202.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Caruthers MH. A brief review of DNA and RNA chemical synthesis. Biochem Soc Trans. 2011 Apr; 39(2):575-80. PMID: 21428942.
      View in: PubMed
    23. LeProust EM, Peck BJ, Spirin K, McCuen HB, Moore B, Namsaraev E, Caruthers MH. Synthesis of high-quality libraries of long (150mer) oligonucleotides by a novel depurination controlled process. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 May; 38(8):2522-40. PMID: 20308161; PMCID: PMC2860131.
    24. Kupihár Z, Timár Z, Darula Z, Dellinger DJ, Caruthers MH. An electrospray mass spectrometric method for accurate mass determination of highly acid-sensitive phosphoramidites. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2008; 22(4):533-40. PMID: 18215010.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Yamada CM, Dellinger DJ, Caruthers MH. Synthesis and biological activity of phosphonocarboxylate DNA. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2007; 26(6-7):539-46. PMID: 18066852.
      View in: PubMed
    26. McCuen HB, Noé MS, Sierzchala AB, Higson AP, Caruthers MH. Synthesis of mixed sequence borane phosphonate DNA. J Am Chem Soc. 2006 Jun 28; 128(25):8138-9. PMID: 16787069.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Yamada CM, Dellinger DJ, Caruthers MH. Synthesis and biochemical evaluation of phosphonoformate oligodeoxyribonucleotides. J Am Chem Soc. 2006 Apr 19; 128(15):5251-61. PMID: 16608361.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Kupihár Z, Timár Z, Dellinger DJ, Caruthers MH. Accurate mass analysis of phosphoramidites by electrospray mass spectrometry. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2005; 24(5-7):663-6. PMID: 16248009.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Dellinger DJ, Betley JR, Wyrzykiewicz TK, Caruthers MH. Synthesis of DNA using a new two-step cycle. Methods Mol Biol. 2005; 288:1-16. PMID: 15333894.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Dellinger DJ, Yamada CM, Caruthers MH. Oligodeoxyribonucleotide analogs functionalized with phosphonoacetate and thiophosphonoacetate diesters. Curr Protoc Nucleic Acid Chem. 2004 Oct; Chapter 4:Unit 4.24. PMID: 18428930.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Sierzchala AB, Dellinger DJ, Betley JR, Wyrzykiewicz TK, Yamada CM, Caruthers MH. Solid-phase oligodeoxynucleotide synthesis: a two-step cycle using peroxy anion deprotection. J Am Chem Soc. 2003 Nov 05; 125(44):13427-41. PMID: 14583038.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Sheehan D, Lunstad B, Yamada CM, Stell BG, Caruthers MH, Dellinger DJ. Biochemical properties of phosphonoacetate and thiophosphonoacetate oligodeoxyribonucleotides. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003 Jul 15; 31(14):4109-18. PMID: 12853628; PMCID: PMC165954.
    33. Dellinger DJ, Sheehan DM, Christensen NK, Lindberg JG, Caruthers MH. Solid-phase chemical synthesis of phosphonoacetate and thiophosphonoacetate oligodeoxynucleotides. J Am Chem Soc. 2003 Jan 29; 125(4):940-50. PMID: 12537492.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Jenkins KE, Higson AP, Seeberger PH, Caruthers MH. Solid-phase synthesis and biochemical studies of O-boranophosphopeptides and O-dithiophosphopeptides. J Am Chem Soc. 2002 Jun 12; 124(23):6584-93. PMID: 12047178.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Liao X, Anjaneyulu PS, Curley JF, Hsu M, Boehringer M, Caruthers MH, Piccirilli JA. The tetrahymena ribozyme cleaves a 5'-methylene phosphonate monoester approximately 10(2)-fold faster than a normal phosphate diester: implications for enzyme catalysis of phosphoryl transfer reactions. Biochemistry. 2001 Sep 18; 40(37):10911-26. PMID: 11551186.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Beaucage SL, Caruthers MH. Synthetic strategies and parameters involved in the synthesis of oligodeoxyribonucleotides according to the phosphoramidite method. Curr Protoc Nucleic Acid Chem. 2001 May; Chapter 3:Unit 3.3. PMID: 18428844.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Derrick WB, Greef CH, Caruthers MH, Uhlenbeck OC. Hammerhead cleavage of the phosphorodithioate linkage. Biochemistry. 2000 Apr 25; 39(16):4947-54. PMID: 10769154.
      View in: PubMed
    38. DeLong RK, Nolting A, Fisher M, Chen Q, Wickstrom E, Kligshteyn M, Demirdji S, Caruthers M, Juliano RL. Comparative pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and tumor accumulation of phosphorothioate, phosphorodithioate, and methylphosphonate oligonucleotides in nude mice. Antisense Nucleic Acid Drug Dev. 1997 Apr; 7(2):71-7. PMID: 9149842.
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    39. Cheng X, DeLong RK, Wickstrom E, Kligshteyn M, Demirdji SH, Caruthers MH, Juliano RL. Interactions between single-stranded DNA binding protein and oligonucleotide analogs with different backbone chemistries. J Mol Recognit. 1997 Mar-Apr; 10(2):101-7. PMID: 9376128.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Caruthers MH. Oligonucleotides as therapeutic agents. Introduction. Ciba Found Symp. 1997; 209:1-4. PMID: 9383564.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Vaughn JP, Stekler J, Demirdji S, Mills JK, Caruthers MH, Iglehart JD, Marks JR. Inhibition of the erbB-2 tyrosine kinase receptor in breast cancer cells by phosphoromonothioate and phosphorodithioate antisense oligonucleotides. Nucleic Acids Res. 1996 Nov 15; 24(22):4558-64. PMID: 8948649; PMCID: PMC146276.
    42. Cummins L, Graff D, Beaton G, Marshall WS, Caruthers MH. Biochemical and physicochemical properties of phosphorodithioate DNA. Biochemistry. 1996 Jul 02; 35(26):8734-41. PMID: 8679636.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Wiesler WT, Caruthers MH. Synthesis of Phosphorodithioate DNA via Sulfur-Linked, Base-Labile Protecting Groups(1). J Org Chem. 1996 Jun 26; 61(13):4272-4281. PMID: 11667326.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Wengel J, Schinazi RF, Caruthers MH. Stereoselective synthesis, chemistry and antiviral evaluation of 1-(2,3-dideoxy-3-C-hydroxymethyl-beta-D-threo-pentofuranosyl)thymine derivatives. Bioorg Med Chem. 1995 Sep; 3(9):1223-9. PMID: 8564413.
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    45. Vaughn JP, Iglehart JD, Demirdji S, Davis P, Babiss LE, Caruthers MH, Marks JR. Antisense DNA downregulation of the ERBB2 oncogene measured by a flow cytometric assay. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Aug 29; 92(18):8338-42. PMID: 7667291; PMCID: PMC41152.
    46. Tonkinson JL, Guvakova M, Khaled Z, Lee J, Yakubov L, Marshall WS, Caruthers MH, Stein CA. Cellular pharmacology and protein binding of phosphoromonothioate and phosphorodithioate oligodeoxynucleotides: a comparative study. Antisense Res Dev. 1994; 4(4):269-78. PMID: 7537561.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Marshall WS, Caruthers MH. Phosphorodithioate DNA as a potential therapeutic drug. Science. 1993 Mar 12; 259(5101):1564-70. PMID: 7681216.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Piccirilli JA, Vyle JS, Caruthers MH, Cech TR. Metal ion catalysis in the Tetrahymena ribozyme reaction. Nature. 1993 Jan 07; 361(6407):85-8. PMID: 8421499.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Wiesler WT, Marshall WS, Caruthers MH. Synthesis and purification of phosphorodithioate DNA. Methods Mol Biol. 1993; 20:191-206. PMID: 8242137.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Marshall WS, Beaton G, Stein CA, Matsukura M, Caruthers MH. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus activity by phosphorodithioate oligodeoxycytidine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Jul 15; 89(14):6265-9. PMID: 1378623; PMCID: PMC49481.
    51. Matteucci MD, Caruthers MH. Synthesis of deoxyoligonucleotides on a polymer support. 1981. Biotechnology. 1992; 24:92-8. PMID: 1422073.
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    52. Caruthers MH, Beaton G, Wu JV, Wiesler W. Chemical synthesis of deoxyoligonucleotides and deoxyoligonucleotide analogs. Methods Enzymol. 1992; 211:3-20. PMID: 1406312.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Delannoy P, Caruthers MH. Detection and characterization of a factor which rescues spliceosome assembly from a heat-inactivated HeLa cell nuclear extract. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 Jul; 11(7):3425-31. PMID: 2046662; PMCID: PMC361070.
    54. Caruthers MH, Beaton G, Cummins L, Graff D, Hall M, Marshall WS, Sasmor H, Wiesler W. Synthesis and biological studies with dithioate DNA. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser. 1991; (24):91-4. PMID: 1726757.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Caruthers MH, Beaton G, Cummins L, Graff D, Ma YX, Marshall WS, Sasmor H, Norris P, Yau EK. Synthesis and biochemical studies of dithioate DNA. Ciba Found Symp. 1991; 158:158-66; discussion 166-8. PMID: 1718668.
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    56. Hubbard AJ, Bracco LP, Eisenbeis SJ, Gayle RB, Beaton G, Caruthers MH. Role of the Cro repressor carboxy-terminal domain and flexible dimer linkage in operator and nonspecific DNA binding. Biochemistry. 1990 Oct 02; 29(39):9241-9. PMID: 2271592.
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    57. Reilly JD, Freeman SK, Melhem RF, Kierzek R, Caruthers MH, Edmonds M, Munns TW. Antibodies specific for branched ribonucleic acids. Anal Biochem. 1990 Feb 15; 185(1):125-30. PMID: 1693046.
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    58. Caruthers MH, Brill WK, Grandas A, Ma YX, Nielsen J, Tang JY. Synthesis of oligodeoxynucleoside phosphorodithioates. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser. 1989; (21):119-20. PMID: 2608456.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Nielsen J, Caruthers MH. Directed Arbuzov-type reactions of 2-cyano-1,1-dimethylethyl deoxynucleoside phosphites. J Am Chem Soc. 1988 Aug 01; 110(18):6275-6. PMID: 22148829.
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    60. Dubendorff JW, deHaseth PL, Rosendahl MS, Caruthers MH. DNA functional groups required for formation of open complexes between Escherichia coli RNA polymerase and the lambda PR promoter. Identification via base analog substitutions. J Biol Chem. 1987 Jan 15; 262(2):892-8. PMID: 2948952.
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    61. Caruthers MH, Barone AD, Beaucage SL, Dodds DR, Fisher EF, McBride LJ, Matteucci M, Stabinsky Z, Tang JY. Chemical synthesis of deoxyoligonucleotides by the phosphoramidite method. Methods Enzymol. 1987; 154:287-313. PMID: 3431460.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Kierzek R, Caruthers MH, Longfellow CE, Swinton D, Turner DH, Freier SM. Polymer-supported RNA synthesis and its application to test the nearest-neighbor model for duplex stability. Biochemistry. 1986 Dec 02; 25(24):7840-6. PMID: 2432933.
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    63. Freier SM, Kierzek R, Jaeger JA, Sugimoto N, Caruthers MH, Neilson T, Turner DH. Improved free-energy parameters for predictions of RNA duplex stability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Dec; 83(24):9373-7. PMID: 2432595; PMCID: PMC387140.
    64. Kierzek R, Kopp DW, Edmonds M, Caruthers MH. Chemical synthesis of branched RNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986 Jun 25; 14(12):4751-64. PMID: 2425338; PMCID: PMC311489.
    65. Freier SM, Kierzek R, Caruthers MH, Neilson T, Turner DH. Free energy contributions of G.U and other terminal mismatches to helix stability. Biochemistry. 1986 Jun 03; 25(11):3209-13. PMID: 3730356.
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    66. Freier SM, Sugimoto N, Sinclair A, Alkema D, Neilson T, Kierzek R, Caruthers MH, Turner DH. Stability of XGCGCp, GCGCYp, and XGCGCYp helixes: an empirical estimate of the energetics of hydrogen bonds in nucleic acids. Biochemistry. 1986 Jun 03; 25(11):3214-9. PMID: 3730357.
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    67. Betz JL, Sasmor HM, Buck F, Insley MY, Caruthers MH. Base substitution mutants of the lac operator: in vivo and in vitro affinities for lac repressor. Gene. 1986; 50(1-3):123-32. PMID: 3556322.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Mandecki W, Goldman RA, Powell BS, Caruthers MH. lac Up-promoter mutants with increased homology to the consensus promoter sequence. J Bacteriol. 1985 Dec; 164(3):1353-5. PMID: 2999082; PMCID: PMC219337.
    69. Caruthers MH. Gene synthesis machines: DNA chemistry and its uses. Science. 1985 Oct 18; 230(4723):281-5. PMID: 3863253.
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    70. Gottlieb P, Nasoff MS, Fisher EF, Walsh AM, Caruthers MH. Binding studies of SV40 T-antigen to SV40 binding site II. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985 Sep 25; 13(18):6621-34. PMID: 2997717; PMCID: PMC321981.
    71. Eisenbeis SJ, Nasoff MS, Noble SA, Bracco LP, Dodds DR, Caruthers MH. Altered Cro repressors from engineered mutagenesis of a synthetic cro gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Feb; 82(4):1084-8. PMID: 3156377; PMCID: PMC397198.
    72. Fisher EF, Feist PL, Beaucage SL, Meyers RM, Tjian R, Caruthers MH. Interaction of AD2+D2 protein and simian virus 40 large T antigen with the large tumor antigen binding site I. Biochemistry. 1984 Dec 04; 23(25):5938-44. PMID: 6098305.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Mandecki W, Caruthers MH. Mutants of the lac promoter with large insertions and deletions between the CAP binding site and the -35 region. Gene. 1984 Nov; 31(1-3):263-7. PMID: 6396162.
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    74. Lomax MI, Bachman NJ, Nasoff MS, Caruthers MH, Grossman LI. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone for bovine cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Oct; 81(20):6295-9. PMID: 6093095; PMCID: PMC391910.
    75. Hunkapiller M, Kent S, Caruthers M, Dreyer W, Firca J, Giffin C, Horvath S, Hunkapiller T, Tempst P, Hood L. A microchemical facility for the analysis and synthesis of genes and proteins. Nature. 1984 Jul 12-18; 310(5973):105-11. PMID: 6738709.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Barone AD, Tang JY, Caruthers MH. In situ activation of bis-dialkylaminophosphines--a new method for synthesizing deoxyoligonucleotides on polymer supports. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 May 25; 12(10):4051-61. PMID: 6728676; PMCID: PMC318815.
    77. Munson LM, Mandecki W, Caruthers MH, Reznikoff WS. Oligonucleotide mutagenesis of the lacPUV5 promoter. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 May 11; 12(9):4011-7. PMID: 6374620; PMCID: PMC318807.
    78. Montell C, Fisher EF, Caruthers MH, Berk AJ. Control of adenovirus E1B mRNA synthesis by a shift in the activities of RNA splice sites. Mol Cell Biol. 1984 May; 4(5):966-72. PMID: 6727875; PMCID: PMC368849.
    79. Noble SA, Fisher EF, Caruthers MH. Methylphosphonates as probes of protein-nucleic acid interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 Apr 11; 12(7):3387-404. PMID: 6718253; PMCID: PMC318753.
    80. Montell C, Fisher EF, Caruthers MH, Berk AJ. Inhibition of RNA cleavage but not polyadenylation by a point mutation in mRNA 3' consensus sequence AAUAAA. Nature. 1983 Oct 13-19; 305(5935):600-5. PMID: 6194440.
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    81. Concino M, Goldman RA, Caruthers MH, Weinmann R. Point mutations of the adenovirus major late promoter with different transcriptional efficiencies in vitro. J Biol Chem. 1983 Jul 10; 258(13):8493-6. PMID: 6305988.
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    82. Fisher EF, Caruthers MH. Color coded triarylmethyl protecting groups useful for deoxypolynucleotide synthesis. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Mar 11; 11(5):1589-99. PMID: 6828388; PMCID: PMC325818.
    83. deHaseth PL, Goldman RA, Cech CL, Caruthers MH. Chemical synthesis and biochemical reactivity of bacteriophage lambda PR promoter. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Feb 11; 11(3):773-87. PMID: 6300767; PMCID: PMC325752.
    84. Caruthers MH, Beaucage SL, Efcavitch JW, Fisher EF, Goldman RA, deHaseth PL, Mandecki W, Matteucci MD, Rosendahl MS, Stabinsky Y. Chemical synthesis and biological studies on mutated gene-control regions. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1983; 47 Pt 1:411-8. PMID: 6345060.
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    85. Caruthers MH, Beaucage SL, Becker C, Efcavitch JW, Fisher EF, Galluppi G, Goldman R, deHaseth P, Matteucci M, McBride L, et al. Deoxyoligonucleotide synthesis via the phosphoramidite method. Gene Amplif Anal. 1983; 3:1-26. PMID: 6400698.
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    86. Donnér J, Caruthers MH, Gill SJ. A calorimetric investigation of the interaction of the lac repressor with inducer. J Biol Chem. 1982 Dec 25; 257(24):14826-9. PMID: 6757249.
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    87. Drahos D, Galluppi GR, Caruthers M, Szybalski W. Synthesis of the nutL DNA segments and analysis of antitermination and termination functions in coliphage lambda. Gene. 1982 Jun; 18(3):343-54. PMID: 6290338.
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    88. Montell C, Fisher EF, Caruthers MH, Berk AJ. Resolving the functions of overlapping viral genes by site-specific mutagenesis at a mRNA splice site. Nature. 1982 Feb 04; 295(5848):380-4. PMID: 7057903.
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    89. Lillis M, Nick H, Lu P, Sadler J, Caruthers MH. Iac operon operator DNA: isolation and trimming for NMR spectroscopy. Anal Biochem. 1982 Feb; 120(1):52-8. PMID: 6283934.
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    90. Caruthers MH. The application of nucleic acid chemistry to studies on the functional organization of gene control regions. Princess Takamatsu Symp. 1982; 12:295-306. PMID: 6300026.
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    91. Nick H, Arndt K, Boschelli F, Jarema MA, Lillis M, Sadler J, Caruthers M, Lu P. lac repressor-lac operator interaction: NMR observations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Jan; 79(2):218-22. PMID: 7043455; PMCID: PMC345697.
    92. Caruthers MH, Beaucage SL, Efcavitch JW, Fisher EF, Matteucci MD, Stabinsky Y. New chemical methods for synthesizing polynucleotides. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser. 1980; (7):215-23. PMID: 7255169.
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    93. Fisher EF, Caruthers MH. Studies on gene control regions XII. The functional significance of a lac operator constitutive mutation. Nucleic Acids Res. 1979 Sep 25; 7(2):401-16. PMID: 386283; PMCID: PMC328025.
    94. Yansura DG, Goeddel DV, Kundu A, Caruthers MH. Studied on gene control regions IX. The effect of hypoxanthine-substituted lac operators on the lac operator--lac repressor interaction. J Mol Biol. 1979 Sep 05; 133(1):117-35. PMID: 393830.
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    95. Sista HS, Loder RT, Caruthers MH. Studies on gene control regions X. The effect of specific adenine-thymine transversions on the lac repressor-lac operator interaction. Nucleic Acids Res. 1979 Jun 11; 6(7):2583-99. PMID: 379824; PMCID: PMC327873.
    96. Goeddel DV, Yansura DG, Winston C, Caruthers MH. Studies on gene control regions. VII. Effect of 5-bromuracil-substituted lac operators on the lac operator-lac repressor interaction. J Mol Biol. 1978 Aug 25; 123(4):661-87. PMID: 691058.
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    97. Goeddel DV, Yansura DG, Caruthers MH. How lac repressor recognizes lac operator. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978 Aug; 75(8):3578-82. PMID: 278973; PMCID: PMC392828.
    98. Sadler JR, Betz JL, Tecklenburg M, Goeddel DV, Yansura DG, Caruthers MH. Cloning of chemically synthesized lactose operators. II. EcoRI-linkered operators. Gene. 1978 May; 3(3):211-32. PMID: 357249.
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    99. Kawashima E, Gadek T, Caruthers MH. Synthesis and biological activity of a lambda pseudo operator. Biochemistry. 1977 Sep 20; 16(19):4209-17. PMID: 901770.
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    100. Goeddel DV, Yansura DG, Caruthers MH. Studies on gene control regions. VI. The 5- methyl of thymine, a lac repressor recognition site. Nucleic Acids Res. 1977 Sep; 4(9):3039-54. PMID: 333399; PMCID: PMC342633.
    101. Goeddel DV, Yansura DG, Caruthers MH. Binding of synthetic lactose operator DNAs to lactose represessors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Aug; 74(8):3292-6. PMID: 333432; PMCID: PMC431535.
    102. Sadler JR, Tecklenburg M, Betz JL, Goeddel DV, Yansura DG, Caruthers MH. Cloning of chemically synthesized lactose operators. Gene. 1977 Jul; 1(5-6):305-21. PMID: 338421.
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    103. Goeddel DV, Yansura DG, Caruthers MH. Studies on gene control regions. 1. Chemical synthesis of lactose operator deoxyribonucleic acid segments. Biochemistry. 1977 May 03; 16(9):1765-72. PMID: 322706.
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    104. Yansura DG, Goeddel DV, Caruthers MH. Studies on gene control regions. 2. Enzymatic joining of chemically synthesized lactose operator deoxyribonucleic acid segments. Biochemistry. 1977 May 03; 16(9):1772-80. PMID: 857879.
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    105. Yansura DG, Goeddel DV, Cribbs DL, Caruthers MH. Studies of gene control regions. III. Binding of synthetic and modified synthetic lac operator DNAs to lactose repressor. Nucleic Acids Res. 1977 Mar; 4(3):723-37. PMID: 866187; PMCID: PMC342475.
    106. Agarwal KL, Caruthers MH, Fridkin M, Kumar A, van de Sande JH, Khorana HG. Total synthesis of the structural gene for the precursor of a tyrosine suppressor transfer RNA from Escherichia coli. 4. Synthesis of deoxyribopolynucleotide segments corresponding to the nucleotide sequence 47-78. J Biol Chem. 1976 Feb 10; 251(3):599-608. PMID: 765329.
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    107. Kleppe R, Sekiya T, Loewen PC, Kleppe K, Agarwal KL, Büchi H, Besmer P, Caruthers MH, Cashion PJ, Fridkin M, Jay E, Kumar A, Miller RC, Minamoto K, Panet A, RajBhandary UL, Ramamoorthy B, Sidorova N, Takeya T, van de Sande JH, Khorana HG. Total synthesis of the structural gene for the precursor of a tyrosine suppressor transfer RNA from Escherichia coli. 11. Enzymatic joining to form the total DNA duplex. J Biol Chem. 1976 Feb 10; 251(3):667-75. PMID: 175058.
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    108. Minamoto K, Caruthers MH, Ramamoorthy B, van de Sande JH, Sidorova N, Khorana HG. Total synthesis of the structural gene for the precursor of a tyrosine suppressor transfer RNA from Escherichia coli. 3. Synthesis of deoxyribopolynucleotide segments corresponding to the nucleotide sequence 27-51. J Biol Chem. 1976 Feb 10; 251(3):587-98. PMID: 175056.
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    109. Khorana HG, Agarwal KL, Besmer P, Büchi H, Caruthers MH, Cashion PJ, Fridkin M, Jay E, Kleppe K, Kleppe R, Kumar A, Loewen PC, Miller RC, Minamoto K, Panet A, RajBhandary UL, Ramamoorthy B, Sekiya T, Takeya T, van de Sande JH. Total synthesis of the structural gene for the precursor of a tyrosine suppressor transfer RNA from Escherichia coli. 1. General introduction. J Biol Chem. 1976 Feb 10; 251(3):565-70. PMID: 765327.
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    110. van de Sande JH, Caruthers MH, Kumar A, Khorana HG. Total synthesis of the structural gene for the precursor of a tyrosine suppressor transfer RNA from Escherichia coli. 2. Chemical synthesis of the deoxypolynucleotide segments corresponding to the nucleotide sequence 1-31. J Biol Chem. 1976 Feb 10; 251(3):571-86. PMID: 765328.
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    111. Jay E, Cashion PJ, Fridkin M, Ramamoorthy B, Agarwal KL, Caruthers MH, Khorana HG. Total synthesis of the structural gene for the precursor of a tyrosine suppressor transfer RNA from Escherichia coli. 5. Synthesis of the deoxyribopolynucleotide segments representing the nucleotide sequence 71-103. J Biol Chem. 1976 Feb 10; 251(3):609-23. PMID: 765330.
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    112. Agarwal KL, Caruthers MH, Büchi H, van de Sande JH, Khorana HG. Total synthesis of the structural gene for the precursor of a tyrosine suppressor transfer RNA from Escherichia coli. 6. Synthesis of the deoxyribopolynucleotide segments corresponding to the nucleotide sequence 100-126. J Biol Chem. 1976 Feb 10; 251(3):624-33. PMID: 765331.
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    113. Caruthers MH, Kleppe R, Kleppe K, Khorana HG. Total synthesis of the structural gene for the precursor of a tyrosine suppressor transfer RNA from Escherichia coli. 10. Enzymatic joining of chemically synthesized segments to form the DNA duplex corresponding to the nucleotide sequence 86-126. J Biol Chem. 1976 Feb 10; 251(3):658-66. PMID: 175057.
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    114. Powers GJ, Jones RL, Randall GA, Caruthers MH, van de Sande JH, Khorana HG. Optimal strategies for the chemical and enzymatic synthesis of bihelical deoxyribonucleic acids. J Am Chem Soc. 1975 Feb 19; 97(4):875-84. PMID: 1133373.
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    115. Caruthers MH. Current work on the synthesis of transfer RNA genes. Johns Hopkins Med J Suppl. 1973; 2:3-13. PMID: 4606403.
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    116. Besmer P, Miller RC, Caruthers MH, Kumar A, Minamoto K, Van de Sande JH, Sidarova N, Khorana HG. Studies on polynucleotides. CXVII. Hybridization of polydeoxynucleotides with tyrosine transfer RNA sequences to the r-strand of phi80psu + 3 DNA. J Mol Biol. 1972 Dec 30; 72(3):503-22. PMID: 4660319.
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    117. Caruthers MH, Kleppe K, Van de Sande JH, Sgaramella V, Agarwal KL, Büchi H, Gupta NK, Kumar A, Otsuka E, RajBhandary UL, Terao T, Weber H, Yamada T, Khorana HG. CXV. Total synthesis of the structural gene for an alanine transfer RNA from yeast. Enzymic joining to form the total DNA duplex. J Mol Biol. 1972 Dec 28; 72(2):475-92. PMID: 4571087.
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    118. Caruthers MH, Van de Sande JH, Khorana HG. CX. Total synthesis of the structural gene for an alanine transfer ribonucleic acid from yeast. Synthesis of three decadeoxynucleotides corresponding to the nucleotide sequence 51 to 70. J Mol Biol. 1972 Dec 28; 72(2):375-405. PMID: 4571082.
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    119. Van de Sande JH, Caruthers MH, Sgaramella V, Yamada T, Khorana HG. CXIV. Total synthesis of the structural gene for an alanine transfer RNA from yeast. Enzymic joining of the chemically synthesized segments to form the DNA duplex corresponding to nucleotide sequence 46 to 77. J Mol Biol. 1972 Dec 28; 72(2):457-74. PMID: 4571086.
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    120. Caruthers MH, Khorana HG. CXI. Total synthesis of the structural gene for an alanine transfer ribonucleic acid from yeast. Synthesis of a dodecadeoxynucleotide and a heptadeoxynucleotide corresponding to the nucleotide sequence 66 to 77. J Mol Biol. 1972 Dec 28; 72(2):407-26. PMID: 4571083.
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    121. Khorana HG, Agarwal KL, Büchi H, Caruthers MH, Gupta NK, Kleppe K, Kumar A, Otsuka E, RajBhandary UL, Van de Sande JH, Sgaramella V, Terao T, Weber H, Yamada T. Studies on polynucleotides. 103. Total synthesis of the structural gene for an alanine transfer ribonucleic acid from yeast. J Mol Biol. 1972 Dec 28; 72(2):209-17. PMID: 4571075.
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    122. Agarwal KL, Büchi H, Caruthers MH, Gupta N, Khorana HG, Kleppe K, Kumar A, Ohtsuka E, Rajbhandary UL, Van de Sande JH, Sgaramella V, Weber H, Yamada T. Total synthesis of the gene for an alanine transfer ribonucleic acid from yeast. Nature. 1970 Jul 04; 227(5253):27-34. PMID: 5422620.
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    123. Khorana HG, Büchi H, Caruthers MH, Chang SH, Gupta NK, Kumar A, Ohtsuka E, Sgaramella V, Weber H. Progress in the total synthesis of the gene for ala-tRNA. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1968; 33:35-44. PMID: 5254575.
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    124. Letsinger RL, Caruthers MH, Miller PS, Ogilvie KK. Oligonucleotide syntheses utilizing beta-benzoylpropionyl, a blocking group with a trigger for selective cleavage. J Am Chem Soc. 1967 Dec 20; 89(26):7146-7. PMID: 6064358.
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    125. Letsinger RL, Caruthers MH, Jerina DM. Reactions of nucleosides on polymer supports. Synthesis of thymidylylthymidylylthymidine. Biochemistry. 1967 May; 6(5):1379-88. PMID: 6036831.
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