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Brent Elliot Palmer

TitleAssociate Professor
InstitutionUniversity of Colorado Denver - Anschutz Medical Campus
DepartmentSOM-MED
Phone303/724-7203

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse research activities and funding
    F32AI053941     (PALMER, BRENT E)Jul 1, 2003 - Jun 30, 2005
    NIH/NIAID
    Mechanisms of HIV-1-Specific CD4+ T Cell Dysfunction
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R21AI076161     (PALMER, BRENT E)Aug 1, 2008 - Jul 31, 2012
    NIH/NIAID
    Enhancement of HIV-specific CD4+ T cell function by blockade of the PD-1 pathway
    Role: Principal Investigator

    U01HL121816     (FONTENOT, ANDREW P.)Sep 26, 2013 - Jul 31, 2018
    NIH/NHLBI
    Interactions of smoking, PD-1 and IL-10 in HIV-associated lung disease
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    R01DK104047     (LOZUPONE, CATHERINE)Sep 15, 2014 - Aug 31, 2019
    NIH/NIDDK
    Factors mediating gut microbiota dysbiosis and metabolic disease in HIV patients
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    R01DK108366     (PALMER, BRENT E)Sep 21, 2015 - Aug 31, 2020
    NIH/NIDDK
    Diet/gut Microbiome Interaction Influence Inflammatory Disease in HIV Patients
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Anderson J, Li MJ, Palmer B, Remling L, Li S, Yam P, Yee JK, Rossi J, Zaia J, Akkina R. Safety and Efficacy of a Lentiviral Vector Containing Three Anti-HIV Genes-CCR5 Ribozyme, Tat-rev siRNA, and TAR Decoy-in SCID-hu Mouse-Derived T Cells. Mol Ther. 2007 Jun; 15(6):1182-1188. PMID: 28182923.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Jones D, Blackmon A, Neff CP, Palmer BE, Gilden D, Badani H, Nagel MA. Varicella-Zoster Virus Downregulates Programmed Death Ligand 1 and Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I in Human Brain Vascular Adventitial Fibroblasts, Perineurial Cells, and Lung Fibroblasts. J Virol. 2016 Dec 01; 90(23):10527-10534. PMID: 27630241.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Thompson M, Heath SL, Sweeton B, Williams K, Cunningham P, Keele BF, Sen S, Palmer BE, Chomont N, Xu Y, Basu R, Hellerstein MS, Kwa S, Robinson HL. DNA/MVA Vaccination of HIV-1 Infected Participants with Viral Suppression on Antiretroviral Therapy, followed by Treatment Interruption: Elicitation of Immune Responses without Control of Re-Emergent Virus. PLoS One. 2016; 11(10):e0163164. PMID: 27711228.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Neff CP, Rhodes ME, Arnolds KL, Collins CB, Donnelly J, Nusbacher N, Jedlicka P, Schneider JM, McCarter MD, Shaffer M, Mazmanian SK, Palmer BE, Lozupone CA. Diverse Intestinal Bacteria Contain Putative Zwitterionic Capsular Polysaccharides with Anti-inflammatory Properties. Cell Host Microbe. 2016 Oct 12; 20(4):535-547. PMID: 27693306.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Seifert SM, Chen X, Meditz AL, Castillo-Mancilla JR, Gardner EM, Predhomme JA, Clayton C, Austin G, Palmer BE, Zheng JH, Klein B, Kerr BJ, Guida LA, Rower C, Rower JE, Kiser JJ, Bushman LR, MaWhinney S, Anderson PL. Intracellular Tenofovir and Emtricitabine Anabolites in Genital, Rectal, and Blood Compartments from First Dose to Steady State. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2016 Oct/Nov; 32(10-11):981-991. PMID: 27526873.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Schade H, Sen S, Neff CP, Freed BM, Gao D, Gutman JA, Palmer BE. Programmed Death 1 Expression on CD4+ T Cells Predicts Mortality after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2016 Dec; 22(12):2172-2179. PMID: 27519280.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Li SX, Armstrong A, Neff CP, Shaffer M, Lozupone CA, Palmer BE. Complexities of Gut Microbiome Dysbiosis in the Context of HIV Infection and Antiretroviral Therapy. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Jun; 99(6):600-11. PMID: 26940481.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Palmer BE, Li SX, Lozupone CA. The HIV-Associated Enteric Microbiome Has Gone Viral. Cell Host Microbe. 2016 Mar 09; 19(3):270-2. PMID: 26962936.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Cavalli G, Hayashi M, Jin Y, Yorgov D, Santorico SA, Holcomb C, Rastrou M, Erlich H, Tengesdal IW, Dagna L, Neff CP, Palmer BE, Spritz RA, Dinarello CA. MHC class II super-enhancer increases surface expression of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ and affects cytokine production in autoimmune vitiligo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Feb 02; 113(5):1363-8. PMID: 26787888.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Akhmetzyanova I, Drabczyk M, Neff CP, Gibbert K, Dietze KK, Werner T, Liu J, Chen L, Lang KS, Palmer BE, Dittmer U, Zelinskyy G. Correction: PD-L1 Expression on Retrovirus-Infected Cells Mediates Immune Escape from CD8+ T Cell Killing. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Dec; 11(12):e1005364. PMID: 26684741.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Beck JM, Schloss PD, Venkataraman A, Twigg H, Jablonski KA, Bushman FD, Campbell TB, Charlson ES, Collman RG, Crothers K, Curtis JL, Drews KL, Flores SC, Fontenot AP, Foulkes MA, Frank I, Ghedin E, Huang L, Lynch SV, Morris A, Palmer BE, Schmidt TM, Sodergren E, Weinstock GM, Young VB. Multicenter Comparison of Lung and Oral Microbiomes of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Individuals. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Dec 01; 192(11):1335-44. PMID: 26247840.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Akhmetzyanova I, Drabczyk M, Neff CP, Gibbert K, Dietze KK, Werner T, Liu J, Chen L, Lang KS, Palmer BE, Dittmer U, Zelinskyy G. PD-L1 Expression on Retrovirus-Infected Cells Mediates Immune Escape from CD8+ T Cell Killing. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Oct; 11(10):e1005224. PMID: 26484769.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Traina-Dorge V, Doyle-Meyers LA, Sanford R, Manfredo J, Blackmon A, Wellish M, James S, Alvarez X, Midkiff C, Palmer BE, Deharo E, Gilden D, Mahalingam R. Simian Varicella Virus Is Present in Macrophages, Dendritic Cells, and T Cells in Lymph Nodes of Rhesus Macaques after Experimental Reactivation. J Virol. 2015 Oct; 89(19):9817-24. PMID: 26178993.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Erlandson KM, Allshouse AA, Rapaport E, Palmer BE, Wilson CC, Weinberg A, MaWhinney S, Campbell TB. Physical function impairment of older, HIV-infected adults is associated with cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin response. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2015 Sep; 31(9):905-12. PMID: 26061347.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Castillo-Mancilla JR, Meditz A, Wilson C, Zheng JH, Palmer BE, Lee EJ, Gardner EM, Seifert S, Kerr B, Bushman LR, MaWhinney S, Anderson PL. Reduced immune activation during tenofovir-emtricitabine therapy in HIV-negative individuals. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 Apr 15; 68(5):495-501. PMID: 25763783.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Neff CP, Chain JL, MaWhinney S, Martin AK, Linderman DJ, Flores SC, Campbell TB, Palmer BE, Fontenot AP. Lymphocytic alveolitis is associated with the accumulation of functionally impaired HIV-specific T cells in the lung of antiretroviral therapy-naive subjects. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Feb 15; 191(4):464-73. PMID: 25536276.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Li S, Neff CP, Barber K, Hong J, Luo Y, Azam T, Palmer BE, Fujita M, Garlanda C, Mantovani A, Kim S, Dinarello CA. Extracellular forms of IL-37 inhibit innate inflammation in vitro and in vivo but require the IL-1 family decoy receptor IL-1R8. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Feb 24; 112(8):2497-502. PMID: 25654981.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Morou A, Palmer BE, Kaufmann DE. Distinctive features of CD4+ T cell dysfunction in chronic viral infections. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2014 Sep; 9(5):446-51. PMID: 25023623.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Lozupone CA, Rhodes ME, Neff CP, Fontenot AP, Campbell TB, Palmer BE. HIV-induced alteration in gut microbiota: driving factors, consequences, and effects of antiretroviral therapy. Gut Microbes. 2014 Jul 01; 5(4):562-70. PMID: 25078714.
      View in: PubMed
    20. López MC, Palmer BE, Lawrence DA. Naïve T cells, unconventional NK and NKT cells, and highly responsive monocyte-derived macrophages characterize human cord blood. Immunobiology. 2014 Oct; 219(10):756-65. PMID: 24986635.
      View in: PubMed
    21. James SF, Traina-Dorge V, Deharo E, Wellish M, Palmer BE, Gilden D, Mahalingam R. T cells increase before zoster and PD-1 expression increases at the time of zoster in immunosuppressed nonhuman primates latently infected with simian varicella virus. J Neurovirol. 2014 Jun; 20(3):309-13. PMID: 24549971.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Nold-Petry CA, Rudloff I, Baumer Y, Ruvo M, Marasco D, Botti P, Farkas L, Cho SX, Zepp JA, Azam T, Dinkel H, Palmer BE, Boisvert WA, Cool CD, Taraseviciene-Stewart L, Heinhuis B, Joosten LA, Dinarello CA, Voelkel NF, Nold MF. IL-32 promotes angiogenesis. J Immunol. 2014 Jan 15; 192(2):589-602. PMID: 24337385.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Lozupone CA, Li M, Campbell TB, Flores SC, Linderman D, Gebert MJ, Knight R, Fontenot AP, Palmer BE. Alterations in the gut microbiota associated with HIV-1 infection. Cell Host Microbe. 2013 Sep 11; 14(3):329-39. PMID: 24034618.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Chain JL, Martin AK, Mack DG, Maier LA, Palmer BE, Fontenot AP. Impaired function of CTLA-4 in the lungs of patients with chronic beryllium disease contributes to persistent inflammation. J Immunol. 2013 Aug 15; 191(4):1648-56. PMID: 23851684.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Lozupone C, Cota-Gomez A, Palmer BE, Linderman DJ, Charlson ES, Sodergren E, Mitreva M, Abubucker S, Martin J, Yao G, Campbell TB, Flores SC, Ackerman G, Stombaugh J, Ursell L, Beck JM, Curtis JL, Young VB, Lynch SV, Huang L, Weinstock GM, Knox KS, Twigg H, Morris A, Ghedin E, Bushman FD, Collman RG, Knight R, Fontenot AP. Widespread colonization of the lung by Tropheryma whipplei in HIV infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 May 15; 187(10):1110-7. PMID: 23392441.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Erlandson KM, Allshouse AA, Jankowski CM, Lee EJ, Rufner KM, Palmer BE, Wilson CC, MaWhinney S, Kohrt WM, Campbell TB. Association of functional impairment with inflammation and immune activation in HIV type 1-infected adults receiving effective antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis. 2013 Jul 15; 208(2):249-59. PMID: 23559466.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Golden-Mason L, McMahan RH, Strong M, Reisdorph R, Mahaffey S, Palmer BE, Cheng L, Kulesza C, Hirashima M, Niki T, Rosen HR. Galectin-9 functionally impairs natural killer cells in humans and mice. J Virol. 2013 May; 87(9):4835-45. PMID: 23408620.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Palmer BE, Neff CP, Lecureux J, Ehler A, Dsouza M, Remling-Mulder L, Korman AJ, Fontenot AP, Akkina R. In vivo blockade of the PD-1 receptor suppresses HIV-1 viral loads and improves CD4+ T cell levels in humanized mice. J Immunol. 2013 Jan 01; 190(1):211-9. PMID: 23209326.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Gonzalez A, Clemente JC, Shade A, Metcalf JL, Song S, Prithiviraj B, Palmer BE, Knight R. Our microbial selves: what ecology can teach us. EMBO Rep. 2011 Jul 01; 12(8):775-84. PMID: 21720391.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Akkina R, Berges BK, Palmer BE, Remling L, Neff CP, Kuruvilla J, Connick E, Folkvord J, Gagliardi K, Kassu A, Akkina SR. Humanized Rag1-/- ?c-/- mice support multilineage hematopoiesis and are susceptible to HIV-1 infection via systemic and vaginal routes. PLoS One. 2011; 6(6):e20169. PMID: 21695116.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Nold MF, Nold-Petry CA, Zepp JA, Palmer BE, Bufler P, Dinarello CA. IL-37 is a fundamental inhibitor of innate immunity. Nat Immunol. 2010 Nov; 11(11):1014-22. PMID: 20935647.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Kassu A, Marcus RA, D'Souza MB, Kelly-McKnight EA, Palmer BE. Suppression of HIV replication by antiretroviral therapy reduces TIM-3 expression on HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2011 Jan; 27(1):1-3. PMID: 20860535.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Kassu A, Marcus RA, D'Souza MB, Kelly-McKnight EA, Golden-Mason L, Akkina R, Fontenot AP, Wilson CC, Palmer BE. Regulation of virus-specific CD4+ T cell function by multiple costimulatory receptors during chronic HIV infection. J Immunol. 2010 Sep 01; 185(5):3007-18. PMID: 20656923.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Matalon S, Palmer BE, Nold MF, Furlan A, Kassu A, Fossati G, Mascagni P, Dinarello CA. The histone deacetylase inhibitor ITF2357 decreases surface CXCR4 and CCR5 expression on CD4(+) T-cells and monocytes and is superior to valproic acid for latent HIV-1 expression in vitro. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 May 01; 54(1):1-9. PMID: 20300007.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Mack DG, Lanham AM, Falta MT, Palmer BE, Maier LA, Fontenot AP. Deficient and dysfunctional regulatory T cells in the lungs of chronic beryllium disease subjects. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010 Jun 01; 181(11):1241-9. PMID: 20299529.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Golden-Mason L, Palmer BE, Kassam N, Townshend-Bulson L, Livingston S, McMahon BJ, Castelblanco N, Kuchroo V, Gretch DR, Rosen HR. Negative immune regulator Tim-3 is overexpressed on T cells in hepatitis C virus infection and its blockade rescues dysfunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. J Virol. 2009 Sep; 83(18):9122-30. PMID: 19587053.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Mack DG, Lanham AM, Palmer BE, Maier LA, Fontenot AP. CD27 expression on CD4+ T cells differentiates effector from regulatory T cell subsets in the lung. J Immunol. 2009 Jun 01; 182(11):7317-24. PMID: 19454729.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Kassu A, D'Souza M, O'Connor BP, Kelly-McKnight E, Akkina R, Fontenot AP, Palmer BE. Decreased 4-1BB expression on HIV-specific CD4+ T cells is associated with sustained viral replication and reduced IL-2 production. Clin Immunol. 2009 Aug; 132(2):234-45. PMID: 19406689.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Howe R, Dillon S, Rogers L, Palmer B, MaWhinney S, Blyveis N, Schlichtemeier R, D'Souza M, Ingoldby L, Harwood JE, Rietmeijer C, Ray G, Connick E, Wilson CC. Phenotypic and functional characterization of HIV-1-specific CD4+CD8+ double-positive T cells in early and chronic HIV-1 infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Apr 15; 50(5):444-56. PMID: 19360930.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Williams-Skipp C, Raman T, Valuck RJ, Watkins H, Palmer BE, Scheinman RI. Unmasking of a protective tumor necrosis factor receptor I-mediated signal in the collagen-induced arthritis model. Arthritis Rheum. 2009 Feb; 60(2):408-18. PMID: 19180511.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Mack DG, Lanham AK, Palmer BE, Maier LA, Watts TH, Fontenot AP. 4-1BB enhances proliferation of beryllium-specific T cells in the lung of subjects with chronic beryllium disease. J Immunol. 2008 Sep 15; 181(6):4381-8. PMID: 18768897.
      View in: PubMed
    42. López MC, Palmer BE, Lawrence DA. Phenotypic differences between cord blood and adult peripheral blood. Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2009 Jan; 76(1):37-46. PMID: 18642326.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Baumgartner JM, Gonzalez R, Lewis KD, Robinson WA, Richter DA, Palmer BE, Wilson CC, McCarter MD. Increased survival from stage IV melanoma associated with fewer regulatory T Cells. J Surg Res. 2009 Jun 01; 154(1):13-20. PMID: 19062042.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Palmer BE, Mack DG, Martin AK, Gillespie M, Mroz MM, Maier LA, Fontenot AP. Up-regulation of programmed death-1 expression on beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells in chronic beryllium disease. J Immunol. 2008 Feb 15; 180(4):2704-12. PMID: 18250483.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Smyk-Pearson S, Tester IA, Klarquist J, Palmer BE, Pawlotsky JM, Golden-Mason L, Rosen HR. Spontaneous recovery in acute human hepatitis C virus infection: functional T-cell thresholds and relative importance of CD4 help. J Virol. 2008 Feb; 82(4):1827-37. PMID: 18045940.
      View in: PubMed
    46. D'Souza M, Fontenot AP, Mack DG, Lozupone C, Dillon S, Meditz A, Wilson CC, Connick E, Palmer BE. Programmed death 1 expression on HIV-specific CD4+ T cells is driven by viral replication and associated with T cell dysfunction. J Immunol. 2007 Aug 01; 179(3):1979-87. PMID: 17641065.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Baumgartner J, Wilson C, Palmer B, Richter D, Banerjee A, McCarter M. Melanoma induces immunosuppression by up-regulating FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells. J Surg Res. 2007 Jul; 141(1):72-7. PMID: 17574040.
      View in: PubMed
    48. McCarter MD, Baumgartner J, Escobar GA, Richter D, Lewis K, Robinson W, Wilson C, Palmer BE, Gonzalez R. Immunosuppressive dendritic and regulatory T cells are upregulated in melanoma patients. Ann Surg Oncol. 2007 Oct; 14(10):2854-60. PMID: 17593331.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Golden-Mason L, Palmer B, Klarquist J, Mengshol JA, Castelblanco N, Rosen HR. Upregulation of PD-1 expression on circulating and intrahepatic hepatitis C virus-specific CD8+ T cells associated with reversible immune dysfunction. J Virol. 2007 Sep; 81(17):9249-58. PMID: 17567698.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Palmer BE, Mack DG, Martin AK, Maier LA, Fontenot AP. CD57 expression correlates with alveolitis severity in subjects with beryllium-induced disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Jul; 120(1):184-91. PMID: 17416406.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Anderson J, Li MJ, Palmer B, Remling L, Li S, Yam P, Yee JK, Rossi J, Zaia J, Akkina R. Safety and efficacy of a lentiviral vector containing three anti-HIV genes--CCR5 ribozyme, tat-rev siRNA, and TAR decoy--in SCID-hu mouse-derived T cells. Mol Ther. 2007 Jun; 15(6):1182-8. PMID: 17406343.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Berges BK, Wheat WH, Palmer BE, Connick E, Akkina R. HIV-1 infection and CD4 T cell depletion in the humanized Rag2-/-gamma c-/- (RAG-hu) mouse model. Retrovirology. 2006 Nov 01; 3:76. PMID: 17078891.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Simonian PL, Roark CL, Diaz del Valle F, Palmer BE, Douglas IS, Ikuta K, Born WK, O'Brien RL, Fontenot AP. Regulatory role of gammadelta T cells in the recruitment of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to lung and subsequent pulmonary fibrosis. J Immunol. 2006 Oct 01; 177(7):4436-43. PMID: 16982878.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Palmer BE, Blyveis N, Fontenot AP, Wilson CC. Functional and phenotypic characterization of CD57+CD4+ T cells and their association with HIV-1-induced T cell dysfunction. J Immunol. 2005 Dec 15; 175(12):8415-23. PMID: 16339584.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Fontenot AP, Palmer BE, Sullivan AK, Joslin FG, Wilson CC, Maier LA, Newman LS, Kotzin BL. Frequency of beryllium-specific, central memory CD4+ T cells in blood determines proliferative response. J Clin Invest. 2005 Oct; 115(10):2886-93. PMID: 16151531.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Pott GB, Palmer BE, Sullivan AK, Silviera L, Maier LA, Newman LS, Kotzin BL, Fontenot AP. Frequency of beryllium-specific, TH1-type cytokine-expressing CD4+ T cells in patients with beryllium-induced disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005 May; 115(5):1036-42. PMID: 15867863.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Boritz E, Palmer BE, Wilson CC. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific CD4+ T cells that proliferate in vitro detected in samples from most viremic subjects and inversely associated with plasma HIV-1 levels. J Virol. 2004 Nov; 78(22):12638-46. PMID: 15507650.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Palmer BE, Boritz E, Wilson CC. Effects of sustained HIV-1 plasma viremia on HIV-1 Gag-specific CD4+ T cell maturation and function. J Immunol. 2004 Mar 01; 172(5):3337-47. PMID: 14978142.
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    59. Boritz E, Palmer BE, Livingston B, Sette A, Wilson CC. Diverse repertoire of HIV-1 p24-specific, IFN-gamma-producing CD4+ T cell clones following immune reconstitution on highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Immunol. 2003 Jan 15; 170(2):1106-16. PMID: 12517980.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Barron MA, Blyveis N, Palmer BE, MaWhinney S, Wilson CC. Influence of plasma viremia on defects in number and immunophenotype of blood dendritic cell subsets in human immunodeficiency virus 1-infected individuals. J Infect Dis. 2003 Jan 01; 187(1):26-37. PMID: 12508143.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Palmer BE, Boritz E, Blyveis N, Wilson CC. Discordance between frequency of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific gamma interferon-producing CD4(+) T cells and HIV-1-specific lymphoproliferation in HIV-1-infected subjects with active viral replication. J Virol. 2002 Jun; 76(12):5925-36. PMID: 12021325.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Halsey WA, Palmer BE, DeMartini JC, Howell MD. Analysis of sheep T-cell receptor beta-chain heterogeneity. Immunogenetics. 1999 Mar; 49(3):206-14. PMID: 9914334.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Beck JM, Newbury RL, Palmer BE, Warnock ML, Byrd PK, Kaltreider HB. Role of CD8+ lymphocytes in host defense against Pneumocystis carinii in mice. J Lab Clin Med. 1996 Nov; 128(5):477-87. PMID: 8900290.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Beck JM, Newbury RL, Palmer BE. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in scid mice induced by viable organisms propagated in vitro. Infect Immun. 1996 Nov; 64(11):4643-7. PMID: 8890219.
      View in: PubMed
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