Colorado PROFILES, The Colorado Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (CCTSI)
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Linda R Watkins

TitleDistinguished Professor
InstitutionUniversity of Colorado Boulder
DepartmentPsych-Psychology
Phone303/492-7034

    Collapse Research 
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    R43DK038277     (WATKINS, LINDA)Nov 1, 1986 - Mar 31, 1987
    NIH/NIDDK
    IMMUNOENZYMATIC IDENTIFICATION OF HLA &RBC ANTIBODIES
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01NS031569     (WATKINS, LINDA)Sep 29, 1993 - Sep 28, 1997
    NIH/NINDS
    ENDOGENOUS ANTI-OPIATE ANALGESIA SYSTEMS
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01MH055283     (WATKINS, LINDA)Mar 1, 1996 - Feb 28, 2002
    NIH/NIMH
    CYTOKINE TO BRAIN COMMUNICATION--ROLE OF THE VAGUS
    Role: Principal Investigator

    K02MH001558     (WATKINS, LINDA)Jun 5, 1998 - May 31, 2003
    NIH/NIMH
    CYTOKINE-TO-BRAIN COMMUNICATION--ROLE OF THE VAGUS
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01NS038020     (WATKINS, LINDA)Jul 1, 1999 - Jun 30, 2005
    NIH/NINDS
    PAIN FACILITATION BY GP120 AND HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01NS040696     (WATKINS, LINDA)Jul 1, 2001 - Jun 30, 2006
    NIH/NINDS
    ALLODYNIC EFFECTS OF SCIATIC INFLAMMATORY NEURITIS
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R21DA015656     (WATKINS, LINDA)Aug 15, 2002 - Jul 31, 2005
    NIH/NIDA
    Pain control via spinal interleukin-10 gene therapy
    Role: Principal Investigator

    K02DA015642     (WATKINS, LINDA)Jun 1, 2003 - May 31, 2008
    NIH/NIDA
    Immune /Glial Mediation of Exaggerated Pain States
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R03DA017656     (WATKINS, LINDA)Sep 1, 2004 - Feb 28, 2007
    NIH/NIDA
    Methods Development for Studying Dorsal Spinal Cord Glia
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01DA017670     (WATKINS, LINDA)Mar 1, 2005 - Dec 31, 2010
    NIH/NIDA
    Pain facilitation via neuron-to-glia signaling
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R03NS050441     (WATKINS, LINDA)Sep 15, 2005 - May 31, 2007
    NIH/NINDS
    Spinal glia activation in human chronic pain
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01DE017782     (WATKINS, LINDA)Jul 1, 2006 - Jun 30, 2012
    NIH/NIDCR
    Optoid Analgesics: Modulation of Trigeminal &Spinal Glial Activation
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01DA023132     (WATKINS, LINDA)Feb 1, 2008 - Jan 31, 2014
    NIH/NIDA
    Exploring the Potential of Glia for Regulating Clinically Relevant Opiod Actions
    Role: Principal Investigator

    K05DA024044     (WATKINS, LINDA)Jul 1, 2008 - Aug 30, 2013
    NIH/NIDA
    Immune and Gilia Regulation of Pain &Analgesic Actions
    Role: Principal Investigator

    RC1DE020247     (WATKINS, LINDA)Sep 22, 2009 - Aug 31, 2012
    NIH/NIDCR
    Models and mechanisms for the transition of acute-to-chronic orofacial pain
    Role: Principal Investigator

    RC1NS067807     (WATKINS, LINDA)Sep 30, 2009 - Aug 31, 2012
    NIH/NINDS
    Spinal adenosine modulator: enduring anti-inflammatory action in neuropathic pain
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01DE021966     (WATKINS, LINDA)Sep 1, 2011 - Aug 31, 2016
    NIH/NIDCR
    Preventing Transition of Acute-to-Chronic Neuropathic Pain: Models, Mechanisms &
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01NS097313     (WATKINS, LINDA)Jun 15, 2016 - May 31, 2021
    NIH/NINDS
    Targeting toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2 to resolve EAE-associated paralysis, pain and cognitive deficits: efficacy of a clinically-relevant blood brain barrier permeable TLR4/TLR2 antagonist
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01AT009366     (WATKINS, LINDA)Dec 1, 2016 - Nov 30, 2021
    NIH/NCCIH
    Targeting neuropathic pain prevention: Modulating the neuroimmunology of peripheral nerve injury
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Wieseler J, Ellis A, McFadden A, Stone K, Brown K, Cady S, Bastos LF, Sprunger D, Rezvani N, Johnson K, Rice KC, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Supradural inflammatory soup in awake and freely moving rats induces facial allodynia that is blocked by putative immune modulators. Brain Res. 2017 Mar 16. PMID: 28322750.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Lewis SS, Grace PM, Hutchinson MR, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Constriction of the buccal branch of the facial nerve produces unilateral craniofacial allodynia. Brain Behav Immun. 2016 Dec 18. PMID: 27993689.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Barrientos RM, Kitt MM, D'Angelo HM, Watkins LR, Rudy JW, Maier SF. Stable, long-term, spatial memory in young and aged rats achieved with a one day Morris water maze training protocol. Learn Mem. 2016 Dec; 23(12):699-702. PMID: 27918274.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Grace PM, Gaudet AD, Staikopoulos V, Maier SF, Hutchinson MR, Salvemini D, Watkins LR. Nitroxidative Signaling Mechanisms in Pathological Pain. Trends Neurosci. 2016 Dec; 39(12):862-879. PMID: 27842920.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Das N, Dewan V, Grace PM, Gunn RJ, Tamura R, Tzarum N, Watkins LR, Wilson IA, Yin H. HMGB1 Activates Proinflammatory Signaling via TLR5 Leading to Allodynia. Cell Rep. 2016 Oct 18; 17(4):1128-1140. PMID: 27760316.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Dolzani SD, Baratta MV, Amat J, Agster KL, Saddoris MP, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Activation of a Habenulo-Raphe Circuit Is Critical for the Behavioral and Neurochemical Consequences of Uncontrollable Stress in the Male Rat. eNeuro. 2016 Sep-Oct; 3(5). PMID: 27785462.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Grace PM, Fabisiak TJ, Green-Fulgham SM, Anderson ND, Strand KA, Kwilasz AJ, Galer EL, Walker FR, Greenwood BN, Maier SF, Fleshner M, Watkins LR. Prior voluntary wheel running attenuates neuropathic pain. Pain. 2016 09; 157(9):2012-23. PMID: 27355182.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Sobesky JL, D'Angelo HM, Weber MD, Anderson ND, Frank MG, Watkins LR, Maier SF, Barrientos RM. Glucocorticoids Mediate Short-Term High-Fat Diet Induction of Neuroinflammatory Priming, the NLRP3 Inflammasome, and the Danger Signal HMGB1. eNeuro. 2016 Jul-Aug; 3(4). PMID: 27595136.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Ellis A, Grace PM, Wieseler J, Favret J, Springer K, Skarda B, Ayala M, Hutchinson MR, Falci S, Rice KC, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Morphine amplifies mechanical allodynia via TLR4 in a rat model of spinal cord injury. Brain Behav Immun. 2016 Nov; 58:348-356. PMID: 27519154.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Fonken LK, Kitt MM, Gaudet AD, Barrientos RM, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Diminished circadian rhythms in hippocampal microglia may contribute to age-related neuroinflammatory sensitization. Neurobiol Aging. 2016 Nov; 47:102-112. PMID: 27568094.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Fonken LK, Frank MG, Kitt MM, D'Angelo HM, Norden DM, Weber MD, Barrientos RM, Godbout JP, Watkins LR, Maier SF. The Alarmin HMGB1 Mediates Age-Induced Neuroinflammatory Priming. J Neurosci. 2016 Jul 27; 36(30):7946-56. PMID: 27466339.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Grace PM, Strand KA, Galer EL, Urban DJ, Wang X, Baratta MV, Fabisiak TJ, Anderson ND, Cheng K, Greene LI, Berkelhammer D, Zhang Y, Ellis AL, Yin HH, Campeau S, Rice KC, Roth BL, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Morphine paradoxically prolongs neuropathic pain in rats by amplifying spinal NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 06 14; 113(24):E3441-50. PMID: 27247388.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Grace PM, Loram LC, Christianson JP, Strand KA, Flyer-Adams JG, Penzkover KR, Forsayeth JR, van Dam AM, Mahoney MJ, Maier SF, Chavez RA, Watkins LR. Behavioral assessment of neuropathic pain, fatigue, and anxiety in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and attenuation by interleukin-10 gene therapy. Brain Behav Immun. 2017 Jan; 59:49-54. PMID: 27189037.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Grace P, Strand K, Galer E, Anderson N, Fabisiak T, Fulgham S, Greenwood B, Fleshner M, Maier S, Watkins L. (464) Prior voluntary wheel running is protective for neuropathic-like pain. J Pain. 2016 Apr; 17(4S):S90. PMID: 28162718.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Fonken LK, Weber MD, Daut RA, Kitt MM, Frank MG, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Stress-induced neuroinflammatory priming is time of day dependent. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016 Apr; 66:82-90. PMID: 26799851.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Amat J, Dolzani SD, Tilden S, Christianson JP, Kubala KH, Bartholomay K, Sperr K, Ciancio N, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Previous Ketamine Produces an Enduring Blockade of Neurochemical and Behavioral Effects of Uncontrollable Stress. J Neurosci. 2016 Jan 06; 36(1):153-61. PMID: 26740657.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Frank MG, Weber MD, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Stress-induced neuroinflammatory priming: A liability factor in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. Neurobiol Stress. 2016 Oct; 4:62-70. PMID: 27981190.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Frank MG, Weber MD, Fonken LK, Hershman SA, Watkins LR, Maier SF. The redox state of the alarmin HMGB1 is a pivotal factor in neuroinflammatory and microglial priming: A role for the NLRP3 inflammasome. Brain Behav Immun. 2016 Jul; 55:215-24. PMID: 26482581.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Frank MG, Adhikary S, Sobesky JL, Weber MD, Watkins LR, Maier SF. The danger-associated molecular pattern HMGB1 mediates the neuroinflammatory effects of methamphetamine. Brain Behav Immun. 2016 Jan; 51:99-108. PMID: 26254235.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Frank MG, Watkins LR, Maier SF. The permissive role of glucocorticoids in neuroinflammatory priming: mechanisms and insights. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2015 Aug; 22(4):300-5. PMID: 26087336.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Selfridge BR, Wang X, Zhang Y, Yin H, Grace PM, Watkins LR, Jacobson AE, Rice KC. Structure-Activity Relationships of (+)-Naltrexone-Inspired Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Antagonists. J Med Chem. 2015 Jun 25; 58(12):5038-52. PMID: 26010811.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Grace PM, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Opioid-induced central immune signaling: implications for opioid analgesia. Headache. 2015 Apr; 55(4):475-89. PMID: 25833219.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Frank MG, Weber MD, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Stress sounds the alarmin: The role of the danger-associated molecular pattern HMGB1 in stress-induced neuroinflammatory priming. Brain Behav Immun. 2015 Aug; 48:1-7. PMID: 25816800.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Grace PM, Shimizu K, Strand KA, Rice KC, Deng G, Watkins LR, Herson PS. (+)-Naltrexone is neuroprotective and promotes alternative activation in the mouse hippocampus after cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Brain Behav Immun. 2015 Aug; 48:115-22. PMID: 25774010.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Barrientos RM, Kitt MM, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Neuroinflammation in the normal aging hippocampus. Neuroscience. 2015 Nov 19; 309:84-99. PMID: 25772789.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Griggs RB, Donahue RR, Morgenweck J, Grace PM, Sutton A, Watkins LR, Taylor BK. Pioglitazone rapidly reduces neuropathic pain through astrocyte and nongenomic PPAR? mechanisms. Pain. 2015 Mar; 156(3):469-82. PMID: 25599238.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Northcutt AL, Hutchinson MR, Wang X, Baratta MV, Hiranita T, Cochran TA, Pomrenze MB, Galer EL, Kopajtic TA, Li CM, Amat J, Larson G, Cooper DC, Huang Y, O'Neill CE, Yin H, Zahniser NR, Katz JL, Rice KC, Maier SF, Bachtell RK, Watkins LR. DAT isn't all that: cocaine reward and reinforcement require Toll-like receptor 4 signaling. Mol Psychiatry. 2015 Dec; 20(12):1525-37. PMID: 25644383.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Loram LC, Strand KA, Taylor FR, Sloane E, Van Dam AM, Rieger J, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Adenosine 2A receptor agonism: A single intrathecal administration attenuates motor paralysis in experimental autoimmune encephalopathy in rats. Brain Behav Immun. 2015 May; 46:50-4. PMID: 25653191.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Weber MD, Frank MG, Tracey KJ, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Stress induces the danger-associated molecular pattern HMGB-1 in the hippocampus of male Sprague Dawley rats: a priming stimulus of microglia and the NLRP3 inflammasome. J Neurosci. 2015 Jan 07; 35(1):316-24. PMID: 25568124.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Bachtell R, Hutchinson MR, Wang X, Rice KC, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Targeting the Toll of Drug Abuse: The Translational Potential of Toll-Like Receptor 4. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2015; 14(6):692-9. PMID: 26022268.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Corrigan F, Wu Y, Tuke J, Coller JK, Rice KC, Diener KR, Hayball JD, Watkins LR, Somogyi AA, Hutchinson MR. Alcohol-induced sedation and synergistic interactions between alcohol and morphine: a key mechanistic role for Toll-like receptors and MyD88-dependent signaling. Brain Behav Immun. 2015 Mar; 45:245-52. PMID: 25542736.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Barrientos RM, Thompson VM, Kitt MM, Amat J, Hale MW, Frank MG, Crysdale NY, Stamper CE, Hennessey PA, Watkins LR, Spencer RL, Lowry CA, Maier SF. Greater glucocorticoid receptor activation in hippocampus of aged rats sensitizes microglia. Neurobiol Aging. 2015 Mar; 36(3):1483-95. PMID: 25559333.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Fonken LK, Frank MG, Kitt MM, Barrientos RM, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Microglia inflammatory responses are controlled by an intrinsic circadian clock. Brain Behav Immun. 2015 Mar; 45:171-9. PMID: 25433170.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Kwilasz AJ, Grace PM, Serbedzija P, Maier SF, Watkins LR. The therapeutic potential of interleukin-10 in neuroimmune diseases. Neuropharmacology. 2015 Sep; 96(Pt A):55-69. PMID: 25446571.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Christianson JP, Flyer-Adams JG, Drugan RC, Amat J, Daut RA, Foilb AR, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Learned stressor resistance requires extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the prefrontal cortex. Front Behav Neurosci. 2014; 8:348. PMID: 25324750.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Grace PM, Ramos KM, Rodgers KM, Wang X, Hutchinson MR, Lewis MT, Morgan KN, Kroll JL, Taylor FR, Strand KA, Zhang Y, Berkelhammer D, Huey MG, Greene LI, Cochran TA, Yin H, Barth DS, Johnson KW, Rice KC, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Activation of adult rat CNS endothelial cells by opioid-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling induces proinflammatory, biochemical, morphological, and behavioral sequelae. Neuroscience. 2014 Nov 07; 280:299-317. PMID: 25241065.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Lewis SS, Hutchinson MR, Frick MM, Zhang Y, Maier SF, Sammakia T, Rice KC, Watkins LR. Select steroid hormone glucuronide metabolites can cause toll-like receptor 4 activation and enhanced pain. Brain Behav Immun. 2015 Feb; 44:128-36. PMID: 25218902.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Watkins LR, Wang X, Mustafa S, Hutchinson MR. In vivo veritas: (+)-Naltrexone's actions define translational importance: A letter in response to Skolnick et al. 'Translational potential of naloxone and naltrexone as TLR4 antagonists'. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2014 Sep; 35(9):432-3. PMID: 25109571.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Zwicker JD, Zhang Y, Ren J, Hutchinson MR, Rice KC, Watkins LR, Greer JJ, Funk GD. Glial TLR4 signaling does not contribute to opioid-induced depression of respiration. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2014 Oct 15; 117(8):857-68. PMID: 25103966.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Barrientos RM, Thompson VM, Arnold TH, Frank MG, Watkins LR, Maier SF. The role of hepatic and splenic macrophages in E. coli-induced memory impairments in aged rats. Brain Behav Immun. 2015 Jan; 43:60-7. PMID: 25043992.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Sobesky JL, Barrientos RM, De May HS, Thompson BM, Weber MD, Watkins LR, Maier SF. High-fat diet consumption disrupts memory and primes elevations in hippocampal IL-1ß, an effect that can be prevented with dietary reversal or IL-1 receptor antagonism. Brain Behav Immun. 2014 Nov; 42:22-32. PMID: 24998196.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Amat J, Christianson JP, Aleksejev RM, Kim J, Richeson KR, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Control over a stressor involves the posterior dorsal striatum and the act/outcome circuit. Eur J Neurosci. 2014 Jul; 40(2):2352-8. PMID: 24862585.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Watkins LR, Hutchinson MR. A concern on comparing 'apples' and 'oranges' when differences between microglia used in human and rodent studies go far, far beyond simply species: comment on Smith and Dragunow. Trends Neurosci. 2014 Apr; 37(4):189-90. PMID: 24612510.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Grace PM, Hutchinson MR, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Pathological pain and the neuroimmune interface. Nat Rev Immunol. 2014 Apr; 14(4):217-31. PMID: 24577438.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Ellis A, Wieseler J, Favret J, Johnson KW, Rice KC, Maier SF, Falci S, Watkins LR. Systemic administration of propentofylline, ibudilast, and (+)-naltrexone each reverses mechanical allodynia in a novel rat model of central neuropathic pain. J Pain. 2014 Apr; 15(4):407-21. PMID: 24412802.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Jacobsen JH, Watkins LR, Hutchinson MR. Discovery of a novel site of opioid action at the innate immune pattern-recognition receptor TLR4 and its role in addiction. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2014; 118:129-63. PMID: 25175864.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Frank MG, Hershman SA, Weber MD, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Chronic exposure to exogenous glucocorticoids primes microglia to pro-inflammatory stimuli and induces NLRP3 mRNA in the hippocampus. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014 Feb; 40:191-200. PMID: 24485491.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Rodgers KM, Deming YK, Bercum FM, Chumachenko SY, Wieseler JL, Johnson KW, Watkins LR, Barth DS. Reversal of established traumatic brain injury-induced, anxiety-like behavior in rats after delayed, post-injury neuroimmune suppression. J Neurotrauma. 2014 Mar 01; 31(5):487-97. PMID: 24041015.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Grace PM, Strand KA, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Suppression of voluntary wheel running in rats is dependent on the site of inflammation: evidence for voluntary running as a measure of hind paw-evoked pain. J Pain. 2014 Feb; 15(2):121-8. PMID: 24287315.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Loram LC, Taylor FR, Strand KA, Harrison JA, Rzasalynn R, Sholar P, Rieger J, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Intrathecal injection of adenosine 2A receptor agonists reversed neuropathic allodynia through protein kinase (PK)A/PKC signaling. Brain Behav Immun. 2013 Oct; 33:112-22. PMID: 23811314.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Hutchinson MR, Watkins LR. Why is neuroimmunopharmacology crucial for the future of addiction research? Neuropharmacology. 2014 Jan; 76 Pt B:218-27. PMID: 23764149.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Wang X, Grace PM, Pham MN, Cheng K, Strand KA, Smith C, Li J, Watkins LR, Yin H. Rifampin inhibits Toll-like receptor 4 signaling by targeting myeloid differentiation protein 2 and attenuates neuropathic pain. FASEB J. 2013 Jul; 27(7):2713-22. PMID: 23568774.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Bastos LF, Godin AM, Zhang Y, Jarussophon S, Ferreira BC, Machado RR, Maier SF, Konishi Y, de Freitas RP, Fiebich BL, Watkins LR, Coelho MM, Moraes MF. A minocycline derivative reduces nerve injury-induced allodynia, LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 microglial production and signaling via toll-like receptors 2 and 4. Neurosci Lett. 2013 May 24; 543:157-62. PMID: 23523650.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Weber MD, Frank MG, Sobesky JL, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Blocking toll-like receptor 2 and 4 signaling during a stressor prevents stress-induced priming of neuroinflammatory responses to a subsequent immune challenge. Brain Behav Immun. 2013 Aug; 32:112-21. PMID: 23500798.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Frank MG, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Stress-induced glucocorticoids as a neuroendocrine alarm signal of danger. Brain Behav Immun. 2013 Oct; 33:1-6. PMID: 23459026.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Theberge FR, Li X, Kambhampati S, Pickens CL, St Laurent R, Bossert JM, Baumann MH, Hutchinson MR, Rice KC, Watkins LR, Shaham Y. Effect of chronic delivery of the Toll-like receptor 4 antagonist (+)-naltrexone on incubation of heroin craving. Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 15; 73(8):729-37. PMID: 23384483.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Christianson JP, Drugan RC, Flyer JG, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Anxiogenic effects of brief swim stress are sensitive to stress history. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Jul 01; 44:17-22. PMID: 23357538.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Lewis SS, Hutchinson MR, Zhang Y, Hund DK, Maier SF, Rice KC, Watkins LR. Glucuronic acid and the ethanol metabolite ethyl-glucuronide cause toll-like receptor 4 activation and enhanced pain. Brain Behav Immun. 2013 May; 30:24-32. PMID: 23348028.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Loram LC, Taylor FR, Strand KA, Maier SF, Speake JD, Jordan KG, James JW, Wene SP, Pritchard RC, Green H, Van Dyke K, Mazarov A, Letchworth SR, Watkins LR. Systemic administration of an alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine agonist reverses neuropathic pain in male Sprague Dawley rats. J Pain. 2012 Dec; 13(12):1162-71. PMID: 23182225.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Wang X, Fiorini Z, Smith C, Zhang Y, Li J, Watkins LR, Yin H. Repositioning antimicrobial agent pentamidine as a disruptor of the lateral interactions of transmembrane domain 5 of EBV latent membrane protein 1. PLoS One. 2012; 7(10):e47703. PMID: 23094078.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Barrientos RM, Hein AM, Frank MG, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Intracisternal interleukin-1 receptor antagonist prevents postoperative cognitive decline and neuroinflammatory response in aged rats. J Neurosci. 2012 Oct 17; 32(42):14641-8. PMID: 23077050.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Hutchinson MR, Northcutt AL, Hiranita T, Wang X, Lewis SS, Thomas J, van Steeg K, Kopajtic TA, Loram LC, Sfregola C, Galer E, Miles NE, Bland ST, Amat J, Rozeske RR, Maslanik T, Chapman TR, Strand KA, Fleshner M, Bachtell RK, Somogyi AA, Yin H, Katz JL, Rice KC, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Opioid activation of toll-like receptor 4 contributes to drug reinforcement. J Neurosci. 2012 Aug 15; 32(33):11187-200. PMID: 22895704.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Loram LC, Grace PM, Strand KA, Taylor FR, Ellis A, Berkelhammer D, Bowlin M, Skarda B, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Prior exposure to repeated morphine potentiates mechanical allodynia induced by peripheral inflammation and neuropathy. Brain Behav Immun. 2012 Nov; 26(8):1256-64. PMID: 22902523.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Frank MG, Barrientos RM, Thompson BM, Weber MD, Watkins LR, Maier SF. IL-1RA injected intra-cisterna magna confers extended prophylaxis against lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammatory and sickness responses. J Neuroimmunol. 2012 Nov 15; 252(1-2):33-9. PMID: 22871632.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Grace PM, Hurley D, Barratt DT, Tsykin A, Watkins LR, Rolan PE, Hutchinson MR. Harnessing pain heterogeneity and RNA transcriptome to identify blood-based pain biomarkers: a novel correlational study design and bioinformatics approach in a graded chronic constriction injury model. J Neurochem. 2012 Sep; 122(5):976-94. PMID: 22697386.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Kubala KH, Christianson JP, Kaufman RD, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Short- and long-term consequences of stressor controllability in adolescent rats. Behav Brain Res. 2012 Oct 01; 234(2):278-84. PMID: 22771417.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Hughes JP, Chessell I, Malamut R, Perkins M, Backonja M, Baron R, Farrar JT, Field MJ, Gereau RW, Gilron I, McMahon SB, Porreca F, Rappaport BA, Rice F, Richman LK, Segerdahl M, Seminowicz DA, Watkins LR, Waxman SG, Wiech K, Woolf C. Understanding chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012 May; 1255:30-44. PMID: 22564068.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Rodgers KM, Bercum FM, McCallum DL, Rudy JW, Frey LC, Johnson KW, Watkins LR, Barth DS. Acute neuroimmune modulation attenuates the development of anxiety-like freezing behavior in an animal model of traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2012 Jul 01; 29(10):1886-97. PMID: 22435644.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Lewis SS, Loram LC, Hutchinson MR, Li CM, Zhang Y, Maier SF, Huang Y, Rice KC, Watkins LR. (+)-naloxone, an opioid-inactive toll-like receptor 4 signaling inhibitor, reverses multiple models of chronic neuropathic pain in rats. J Pain. 2012 May; 13(5):498-506. PMID: 22520687.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Loram LC, Sholar PW, Taylor FR, Wiesler JL, Babb JA, Strand KA, Berkelhammer D, Day HE, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Sex and estradiol influence glial pro-inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide in rats. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012 Oct; 37(10):1688-99. PMID: 22497984.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Wang X, Loram LC, Ramos K, de Jesus AJ, Thomas J, Cheng K, Reddy A, Somogyi AA, Hutchinson MR, Watkins LR, Yin H. Morphine activates neuroinflammation in a manner parallel to endotoxin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Apr 17; 109(16):6325-30. PMID: 22474354.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Wu Y, Lousberg EL, Moldenhauer LM, Hayball JD, Coller JK, Rice KC, Watkins LR, Somogyi AA, Hutchinson MR. Inhibiting the TLR4-MyD88 signalling cascade by genetic or pharmacological strategies reduces acute alcohol-induced sedation and motor impairment in mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2012 Mar; 165(5):1319-29. PMID: 21955045.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Barrientos RM, Frank MG, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Aging-related changes in neuroimmune-endocrine function: implications for hippocampal-dependent cognition. Horm Behav. 2012 Aug; 62(3):219-27. PMID: 22370243.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Bastos LF, de Oliveira AC, Watkins LR, Moraes MF, Coelho MM. Tetracyclines and pain. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2012 Mar; 385(3):225-41. PMID: 22282331.
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    85. Christianson JP, Jennings JH, Ragole T, Flyer JG, Benison AM, Barth DS, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Safety signals mitigate the consequences of uncontrollable stress via a circuit involving the sensory insular cortex and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Sep 01; 70(5):458-64. PMID: 21684526.
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    88. Liu L, Ghosh N, Slivka PF, Fiorini Z, Hutchinson MR, Watkins LR, Yin H. An MD2 hot-spot-mimicking peptide that suppresses TLR4-mediated inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. Chembiochem. 2011 Aug 16; 12(12):1827-31. PMID: 21678541.
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    91. Liu L, Coller JK, Watkins LR, Somogyi AA, Hutchinson MR. Naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal behavior and brain IL-1ß expression: comparison of different mouse strains. Brain Behav Immun. 2011 Aug; 25(6):1223-32. PMID: 21447380.
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    92. Wu Y, Lousberg EL, Moldenhauer LM, Hayball JD, Robertson SA, Coller JK, Watkins LR, Somogyi AA, Hutchinson MR. Attenuation of microglial and IL-1 signaling protects mice from acute alcohol-induced sedation and/or motor impairment. Brain Behav Immun. 2011 Jun; 25 Suppl 1:S155-64. PMID: 21276848.
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    97. Hains LE, Loram LC, Weiseler JL, Frank MG, Bloss EB, Sholar P, Taylor FR, Harrison JA, Martin TJ, Eisenach JC, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Pain intensity and duration can be enhanced by prior challenge: initial evidence suggestive of a role of microglial priming. J Pain. 2010 Oct; 11(10):1004-14. PMID: 20434956.
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    98. Wieseler J, Ellis AL, McFadden A, Brown K, Starnes C, Maier SF, Watkins LR, Falci S. Below level central pain induced by discrete dorsal spinal cord injury. J Neurotrauma. 2010 Sep; 27(9):1697-707. PMID: 20649467.
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    99. Maier SF, Watkins LR. Role of the medial prefrontal cortex in coping and resilience. Brain Res. 2010 Oct 08; 1355:52-60. PMID: 20727864.
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    100. Joce C, Stahl JA, Shridhar M, Hutchinson MR, Watkins LR, Fedichev PO, Yin H. Application of a novel in silico high-throughput screen to identify selective inhibitors for protein-protein interactions. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010 Sep 15; 20(18):5411-3. PMID: 20709548.
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    101. Ramos KM, Lewis MT, Morgan KN, Crysdale NY, Kroll JL, Taylor FR, Harrison JA, Sloane EM, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Spinal upregulation of glutamate transporter GLT-1 by ceftriaxone: therapeutic efficacy in a range of experimental nervous system disorders. Neuroscience. 2010 Sep 15; 169(4):1888-900. PMID: 20547213.
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    102. Soderquist RG, Milligan ED, Harrison JA, Chavez RA, Johnson KW, Watkins LR, Mahoney MJ. PEGylation of interleukin-10 for the mitigation of enhanced pain states. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2010 Jun 01; 93(3):1169-79. PMID: 19768789.
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    103. Frank MG, Barrientos RM, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Aging sensitizes rapidly isolated hippocampal microglia to LPS ex vivo. J Neuroimmunol. 2010 Sep 14; 226(1-2):181-4. PMID: 20537730.
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    104. Bevan DE, Martinko AJ, Loram LC, Stahl JA, Taylor FR, Joshee S, Watkins LR, Yin H. Selection, Preparation, and Evaluation of Small- Molecule Inhibitors of Toll-Like Receptor 4. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2010 Apr 12; 1(5):194-198. PMID: 20824192.
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    105. Hutchinson MR, Loram LC, Zhang Y, Shridhar M, Rezvani N, Berkelhammer D, Phipps S, Foster PS, Landgraf K, Falke JJ, Rice KC, Maier SF, Yin H, Watkins LR. Evidence that tricyclic small molecules may possess toll-like receptor and myeloid differentiation protein 2 activity. Neuroscience. 2010 Jun 30; 168(2):551-63. PMID: 20381591.
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    106. Buchanan MM, Hutchinson M, Watkins LR, Yin H. Toll-like receptor 4 in CNS pathologies. J Neurochem. 2010 Jul; 114(1):13-27. PMID: 20402965.
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    107. Loram LC, Harrison JA, Chao L, Taylor FR, Reddy A, Travis CL, Giffard R, Al-Abed Y, Tracey K, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Intrathecal injection of an alpha seven nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist attenuates gp120-induced mechanical allodynia and spinal pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles in rats. Brain Behav Immun. 2010 Aug; 24(6):959-67. PMID: 20353818.
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    108. Bland ST, Beckley JT, Watkins LR, Maier SF, Bilbo SD. Neonatal Escherichia coli infection alters glial, cytokine, and neuronal gene expression in response to acute amphetamine in adolescent rats. Neurosci Lett. 2010 Apr 19; 474(1):52-7. PMID: 20223277.
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    109. Soderquist RG, Sloane EM, Loram LC, Harrison JA, Dengler EC, Johnson SM, Amer LD, Young CS, Lewis MT, Poole S, Frank MG, Watkins LR, Milligan ED, Mahoney MJ. Release of plasmid DNA-encoding IL-10 from PLGA microparticles facilitates long-term reversal of neuropathic pain following a single intrathecal administration. Pharm Res. 2010 May; 27(5):841-54. PMID: 20224990.
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    110. Hutchinson MR, Lewis SS, Coats BD, Rezvani N, Zhang Y, Wieseler JL, Somogyi AA, Yin H, Maier SF, Rice KC, Watkins LR. Possible involvement of toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor-2 activity of opioid inactive isomers causes spinal proinflammation and related behavioral consequences. Neuroscience. 2010 May 19; 167(3):880-93. PMID: 20178837.
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    113. Soderquist RG, Milligan ED, Sloane EM, Harrison JA, Douvas KK, Potter JM, Hughes TS, Chavez RA, Johnson K, Watkins LR, Mahoney MJ. PEGylation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor for preserved biological activity and enhanced spinal cord distribution. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2009 Dec; 91(3):719-29. PMID: 19048635.
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    114. Christianson JP, Ragole T, Amat J, Greenwood BN, Strong PV, Paul ED, Fleshner M, Watkins LR, Maier SF. 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptors in the basolateral amygdala are involved in the expression of anxiety after uncontrollable traumatic stress. Biol Psychiatry. 2010 Feb 15; 67(4):339-45. PMID: 19914601.
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    115. Amat J, Aleksejev RM, Paul E, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Behavioral control over shock blocks behavioral and neurochemical effects of later social defeat. Neuroscience. 2010 Feb 17; 165(4):1031-8. PMID: 19909791.
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    118. Frank MG, Barrientos RM, Hein AM, Biedenkapp JC, Watkins LR, Maier SF. IL-1RA blocks E. coli-induced suppression of Arc and long-term memory in aged F344xBN F1 rats. Brain Behav Immun. 2010 Feb; 24(2):254-62. PMID: 19822205.
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    123. Hughes TS, Langer SJ, Virtanen SI, Chavez RA, Watkins LR, Milligan ED, Leinwand LA. Immunogenicity of intrathecal plasmid gene delivery: cytokine release and effects on transgene expression. J Gene Med. 2009 Sep; 11(9):782-90. PMID: 19533588.
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    157. Holguin A, Frank MG, Biedenkapp JC, Nelson K, Lippert D, Watkins LR, Rudy JW, Maier SF. Characterization of the temporo-spatial effects of chronic bilateral intrahippocampal cannulae on interleukin-1beta. J Neurosci Methods. 2007 Apr 15; 161(2):265-72. PMID: 17241670.
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    161. Bland ST, Tamlyn JP, Barrientos RM, Greenwood BN, Watkins LR, Campeau S, Day HE, Maier SF. Expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus after uncontrollable or controllable stress. Neuroscience. 2007 Feb 23; 144(4):1219-28. PMID: 17197100.
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    173. Barrientos RM, Higgins EA, Biedenkapp JC, Sprunger DB, Wright-Hardesty KJ, Watkins LR, Rudy JW, Maier SF. Peripheral infection and aging interact to impair hippocampal memory consolidation. Neurobiol Aging. 2006 May; 27(5):723-32. PMID: 15893410.
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    174. Bland ST, Schmid MJ, Greenwood BN, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Behavioral control of the stressor modulates stress-induced changes in neurogenesis and fibroblast growth factor-2. Neuroreport. 2006 Apr 24; 17(6):593-7. PMID: 16603918.
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    175. Banks WA, Watkins LR. Mediation of chronic pain: not by neurons alone. Pain. 2006 Sep; 124(1-2):1-2. PMID: 16630695.
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    184. Frank MG, Wieseler-Frank JL, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Rapid isolation of highly enriched and quiescent microglia from adult rat hippocampus: immunophenotypic and functional characteristics. J Neurosci Methods. 2006 Mar 15; 151(2):121-30. PMID: 16125247.
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    185. Takase LF, Nogueira MI, Bland ST, Baratta M, Watkins LR, Maier SF, Fornal CA, Jacobs BL. Effect of number of tailshocks on learned helplessness and activation of serotonergic and noradrenergic neurons in the rat. Behav Brain Res. 2005 Jul 30; 162(2):299-306. PMID: 15913803.
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    197. O'Connor KA, Ginsberg AB, Maksimova E, Wieseler Frank JL, Johnson JD, Spencer RL, Campeau S, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Stress-induced sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis is associated with alterations of hypothalamic and pituitary gene expression. Neuroendocrinology. 2004; 80(4):252-63. PMID: 15627803.
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    198. Bland ST, Schmid MJ, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Prefrontal cortex serotonin, stress, and morphine-induced nucleus accumbens dopamine. Neuroreport. 2004 Dec 03; 15(17):2637-41. PMID: 15570168.
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    199. Der-Avakian A, Will MJ, Bland ST, Deak T, Nguyen KT, Schmid MJ, Spencer RL, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Surgical and pharmacological suppression of glucocorticoids prevents the enhancement of morphine conditioned place preference by uncontrollable stress in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 May; 179(2):409-17. PMID: 15821955.
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    200. Milligan ED, Zapata V, Chacur M, Schoeniger D, Biedenkapp J, O'Connor KA, Verge GM, Chapman G, Green P, Foster AC, Naeve GS, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Evidence that exogenous and endogenous fractalkine can induce spinal nociceptive facilitation in rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2004 Nov; 20(9):2294-302. PMID: 15525271.
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    201. Barrientos RM, Sprunger DB, Campeau S, Watkins LR, Rudy JW, Maier SF. BDNF mRNA expression in rat hippocampus following contextual learning is blocked by intrahippocampal IL-1beta administration. J Neuroimmunol. 2004 Oct; 155(1-2):119-26. PMID: 15342202.
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    202. Steiner AA, Dogan MD, Ivanov AI, Patel S, Rudaya AY, Jennings DH, Orchinik M, Pace TW, O'connor KA, Watkins LR, Romanovsky AA. A new function of the leptin receptor: mediation of the recovery from lipopolysaccharide-induced hypothermia. FASEB J. 2004 Dec; 18(15):1949-51. PMID: 15388670.
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    203. Spataro LE, Sloane EM, Milligan ED, Wieseler-Frank J, Schoeniger D, Jekich BM, Barrientos RM, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Spinal gap junctions: potential involvement in pain facilitation. J Pain. 2004 Sep; 5(7):392-405. PMID: 15501197.
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    204. Verge GM, Milligan ED, Maier SF, Watkins LR, Naeve GS, Foster AC. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) and fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) distribution in spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia under basal and neuropathic pain conditions. Eur J Neurosci. 2004 Sep; 20(5):1150-60. PMID: 15341587.
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    205. Chacur M, Gutiérrez JM, Milligan ED, Wieseler-Frank J, Britto LR, Maier SF, Watkins LR, Cury Y. Snake venom components enhance pain upon subcutaneous injection: an initial examination of spinal cord mediators. Pain. 2004 Sep; 111(1-2):65-76. PMID: 15327810.
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    207. Takase LF, Nogueira MI, Baratta M, Bland ST, Watkins LR, Maier SF, Fornal CA, Jacobs BL. Inescapable shock activates serotonergic neurons in all raphe nuclei of rat. Behav Brain Res. 2004 Aug 12; 153(1):233-9. PMID: 15219724.
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    208. Holguin A, O'Connor KA, Biedenkapp J, Campisi J, Wieseler-Frank J, Milligan ED, Hansen MK, Spataro L, Maksimova E, Bravmann C, Martin D, Fleshner M, Maier SF, Watkins LR. HIV-1 gp120 stimulates proinflammatory cytokine-mediated pain facilitation via activation of nitric oxide synthase-I (nNOS). Pain. 2004 Aug; 110(3):517-30. PMID: 15288392.
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    209. Twining CM, Sloane EM, Milligan ED, Chacur M, Martin D, Poole S, Marsh H, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Peri-sciatic proinflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and complement induce mirror-image neuropathic pain in rats. Pain. 2004 Jul; 110(1-2):299-309. PMID: 15275780.
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    215. Amat J, Tamblyn JP, Paul ED, Bland ST, Amat P, Foster AC, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Microinjection of urocortin 2 into the dorsal raphe nucleus activates serotonergic neurons and increases extracellular serotonin in the basolateral amygdala. Neuroscience. 2004; 129(3):509-19. PMID: 15541873.
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    216. Bland ST, Twining C, Schmid MJ, Der-Avakian A, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Stress potentiation of morphine-induced dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens shell is dependent upon stressor uncontrollability and is mediated by the dorsal raphe nucleus. Neuroscience. 2004; 126(3):705-15. PMID: 15183519.
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    218. Milligan ED, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Sciatic inflammatory neuropathy in the rat: surgical procedures, induction of inflammation, and behavioral testing. Methods Mol Med. 2004; 99:67-89. PMID: 15131330.
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    219. O'Connor KA, Hansen MK, Rachal Pugh C, Deak MM, Biedenkapp JC, Milligan ED, Johnson JD, Wang H, Maier SF, Tracey KJ, Watkins LR. Further characterization of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) as a proinflammatory cytokine: central nervous system effects. Cytokine. 2003 Dec 21; 24(6):254-65. PMID: 14609567.
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    221. Gazda LS, Smith T, Watkins LR, Maier SF, Fleshner M. Stressor exposure produces long-term reductions in antigen-specific T and B cell responses. Stress. 2003 Dec; 6(4):259-67. PMID: 14660058.
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    224. Dworkin RH, Backonja M, Rowbotham MC, Allen RR, Argoff CR, Bennett GJ, Bushnell MC, Farrar JT, Galer BS, Haythornthwaite JA, Hewitt DJ, Loeser JD, Max MB, Saltarelli M, Schmader KE, Stein C, Thompson D, Turk DC, Wallace MS, Watkins LR, Weinstein SM. Advances in neuropathic pain: diagnosis, mechanisms, and treatment recommendations. Arch Neurol. 2003 Nov; 60(11):1524-34. PMID: 14623723.
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    225. Will MJ, Der-Avakian A, Bland ST, Grahn RE, Hammack SE, Sparks PD, Pepin JL, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Electrolytic lesions and pharmacological inhibition of the dorsal raphe nucleus prevent stressor potentiation of morphine conditioned place preference in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2004 Jan; 171(2):191-8. PMID: 13680080.
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    227. Brennan FX, Grahn RE, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Serum cholesterol levels and stressor controllability in rats. Physiol Behav. 2003 Sep; 79(4-5):757-60. PMID: 12954419.
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    228. Campisi J, Hansen MK, O'Connor KA, Biedenkapp JC, Watkins LR, Maier SF, Fleshner M. Circulating cytokines and endotoxin are not necessary for the activation of the sickness or corticosterone response produced by peripheral E. coli challenge. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2003 Nov; 95(5):1873-82. PMID: 12871965.
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    230. O'Connor KA, Johnson JD, Hammack SE, Brooks LM, Spencer RL, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Inescapable shock induces resistance to the effects of dexamethasone. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2003 May; 28(4):481-500. PMID: 12689607.
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    232. Hammack SE, Schmid MJ, LoPresti ML, Der-Avakian A, Pellymounter MA, Foster AC, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Corticotropin releasing hormone type 2 receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus mediate the behavioral consequences of uncontrollable stress. J Neurosci. 2003 Feb 01; 23(3):1019-25. PMID: 12574432.
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    239. Grahn RE, Hammack SE, Will MJ, O'Connor KA, Deak T, Sparks PD, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Blockade of alpha1 adrenoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus prevents enhanced conditioned fear and impaired escape performance following uncontrollable stressor exposure in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2002 Aug 21; 134(1-2):387-92. PMID: 12191825.
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    245. Milligan ED, O'Connor KA, Armstrong CB, Hansen MK, Martin D, Tracey KJ, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Systemic administration of CNI-1493, a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor, blocks intrathecal human immunodeficiency virus-1 gp120-induced enhanced pain states in rats. J Pain. 2001 Dec; 2(6):326-33. PMID: 14622812.
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    255. Milligan ED, Mehmert KK, Hinde JL, Harvey LO, Martin D, Tracey KJ, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia produced by intrathecal administration of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein, gp120. Brain Res. 2000 Apr 07; 861(1):105-16. PMID: 10751570.
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    256. Pugh CR, Johnson JD, Martin D, Rudy JW, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 coat protein gp120 impairs contextual fear conditioning: a potential role in AIDS related learning and memory impairments. Brain Res. 2000 Apr 07; 861(1):8-15. PMID: 10751560.
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    257. Nguyen KT, Deak T, Will MJ, Hansen MK, Hunsaker BN, Fleshner M, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Timecourse and corticosterone sensitivity of the brain, pituitary, and serum interleukin-1beta protein response to acute stress. Brain Res. 2000 Mar 24; 859(2):193-201. PMID: 10719064.
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    259. Watkins LR, Maier SF. The pain of being sick: implications of immune-to-brain communication for understanding pain. Annu Rev Psychol. 2000; 51:29-57. PMID: 10751964.
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    260. Deak T, Nguyen KT, Cotter CS, Fleshner M, Watkins LR, Maier SF, Spencer RL. Long-term changes in mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptor occupancy following exposure to an acute stressor. Brain Res. 1999 Nov 20; 847(2):211-20. PMID: 10575090.
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    261. Deak T, Nguyen KT, Fleshner M, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Acute stress may facilitate recovery from a subcutaneous bacterial challenge. Neuroimmunomodulation. 1999 Sep-Oct; 6(5):344-54. PMID: 10474053.
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    262. Milligan ED, Hinde JL, Mehmert KK, Maier SF, Watkins LR. A method for increasing the viability of the external portion of lumbar catheters placed in the spinal subarachnoid space of rats. J Neurosci Methods. 1999 Aug 01; 90(1):81-6. PMID: 10517276.
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    263. Watkins LR, Maier SF. Implications of immune-to-brain communication for sickness and pain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Jul 06; 96(14):7710-3. PMID: 10393885.
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    264. Grahn RE, Will MJ, Hammack SE, Maswood S, McQueen MB, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Activation of serotonin-immunoreactive cells in the dorsal raphe nucleus in rats exposed to an uncontrollable stressor. Brain Res. 1999 Apr 24; 826(1):35-43. PMID: 10216194.
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    265. Goehler LE, Gaykema RP, Nguyen KT, Lee JE, Tilders FJ, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Interleukin-1beta in immune cells of the abdominal vagus nerve: a link between the immune and nervous systems? J Neurosci. 1999 Apr 01; 19(7):2799-806. PMID: 10087091.
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    266. Grahn RE, Maswood S, McQueen MB, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Opioid-dependent effects of inescapable shock on escape behavior and conditioned fear responding are mediated by the dorsal raphe nucleus. Behav Brain Res. 1999 Mar; 99(2):153-67. PMID: 10512582.
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    267. Deak T, Nguyen KT, Ehrlich AL, Watkins LR, Spencer RL, Maier SF, Licinio J, Wong ML, Chrousos GP, Webster E, Gold PW. The impact of the nonpeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone antagonist antalarmin on behavioral and endocrine responses to stress. Endocrinology. 1999 Jan; 140(1):79-86. PMID: 9886810.
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    268. Watkins LR, Hansen MK, Nguyen KT, Lee JE, Maier SF. Dynamic regulation of the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1beta: molecular biology for non-molecular biologists. Life Sci. 1999; 65(5):449-81. PMID: 10462074.
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    269. Watkins LR, Nguyen KT, Lee JE, Maier SF. Dynamic regulation of proinflammatory cytokines. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999; 461:153-78. PMID: 10442173.
      View in: PubMed
    270. Maier SF, Nguyen KT, Deak T, Milligan ED, Watkins LR. Stress, learned helplessness, and brain interleukin-1 beta. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999; 461:235-49. PMID: 10442176.
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    271. Deak T, Nguyen KT, Ehrlich AL, Watkins LR, Spencer RL, Maier SF, Licinio J, Wong ML, Chrousos GP, Webster E, Gold PW. The Impact of the Nonpeptide Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Antagonist Antalarmin on Behavioral and Endocrine Responses to Stress* *This research was supported by NIMH Grant MH-50479 and the Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Endocrinology. 1999 Jan 01; 140(1):79-86. PMID: 28200658.
      View in: PubMed
    272. Milligan ED, Nguyen KT, Deak T, Hinde JL, Fleshner M, Watkins LR, Maier SF. The long term acute phase-like responses that follow acute stressor exposure are blocked by alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone. Brain Res. 1998 Nov 09; 810(1-2):48-58. PMID: 9813238.
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    273. Goehler LE, Gaykema RP, Hammack SE, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Interleukin-1 induces c-Fos immunoreactivity in primary afferent neurons of the vagus nerve. Brain Res. 1998 Sep 07; 804(2):306-10. PMID: 9757071.
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    274. Fleshner M, Nguyen KT, Cotter CS, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Acute stressor exposure both suppresses acquired immunity and potentiates innate immunity. Am J Physiol. 1998 Sep; 275(3 Pt 2):R870-8. PMID: 9728086.
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    275. Pugh CR, Kumagawa K, Fleshner M, Watkins LR, Maier SF, Rudy JW. Selective effects of peripheral lipopolysaccharide administration on contextual and auditory-cue fear conditioning. Brain Behav Immun. 1998 Sep; 12(3):212-29. PMID: 9769157.
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    276. Gaykema RP, Goehler LE, Tilders FJ, Bol JG, McGorry M, Fleshner M, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Bacterial endotoxin induces fos immunoreactivity in primary afferent neurons of the vagus nerve. Neuroimmunomodulation. 1998 Sep-Oct; 5(5):234-40. PMID: 9730691.
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    277. Will MJ, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Uncontrollable stress potentiates morphine's rewarding properties. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1998 Jul; 60(3):655-64. PMID: 9678649.
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    278. Fleshner M, Goehler LE, Schwartz BA, McGorry M, Martin D, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Thermogenic and corticosterone responses to intravenous cytokines (IL-1beta and TNF-alpha) are attenuated by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. J Neuroimmunol. 1998 Jun 15; 86(2):134-41. PMID: 9663558.
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    279. Maier SF, Goehler LE, Fleshner M, Watkins LR. The role of the vagus nerve in cytokine-to-brain communication. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998 May 01; 840:289-300. PMID: 9629257.
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    280. Watkins LR, Wiertelak EP, McGorry M, Martinez J, Schwartz B, Sisk D, Maier SF. Neurocircuitry of conditioned inhibition of analgesia: effects of amygdala, dorsal raphe, ventral medullary, and spinal cord lesions on antianalgesia in the rat. Behav Neurosci. 1998 Apr; 112(2):360-78. PMID: 9588483.
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    281. Nguyen KT, Deak T, Owens SM, Kohno T, Fleshner M, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Exposure to acute stress induces brain interleukin-1beta protein in the rat. J Neurosci. 1998 Mar 15; 18(6):2239-46. PMID: 9482808.
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    282. Maswood S, Barter JE, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Exposure to inescapable but not escapable shock increases extracellular levels of 5-HT in the dorsal raphe nucleus of the rat. Brain Res. 1998 Feb 02; 783(1):115-20. PMID: 9479059.
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    283. Maier SF, Watkins LR. Cytokines for psychologists: implications of bidirectional immune-to-brain communication for understanding behavior, mood, and cognition. Psychol Rev. 1998 Jan; 105(1):83-107. PMID: 9450372.
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    284. Deak T, Meriwether JL, Fleshner M, Spencer RL, Abouhamze A, Moldawer LL, Grahn RE, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Evidence that brief stress may induce the acute phase response in rats. Am J Physiol. 1997 Dec; 273(6 Pt 2):R1998-2004. PMID: 9435654.
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    285. Sutton LC, Lea SE, Will MJ, Schwartz BA, Hartley CE, Poole JC, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Inescapable shock-induced potentiation of morphine analgesia. Behav Neurosci. 1997 Oct; 111(5):1105-13. PMID: 9383528.
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    286. Milligan ED, McGorry MM, Fleshner M, Gaykema RP, Goehler LE, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy does not prevent fever following intracerebroventricular prostaglandin E2: further evidence for the importance of vagal afferents in immune-to-brain communication. Brain Res. 1997 Aug 22; 766(1-2):240-3. PMID: 9359608.
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    287. Sutton LC, Grahn RE, Wiertelak EP, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Inescapable shock-induced potentiation of morphine analgesia in rats: involvement of opioid, GABAergic, and serotonergic mechanisms in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Behav Neurosci. 1997 Aug; 111(4):816-24. PMID: 9267659.
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    288. Watkins LR, McGorry M, Schwartz B, Sisk D, Wiertelak EP, Maier SF. Reversal of spinal cord non-opiate analgesia by conditioned anti-analgesia in the rat. Pain. 1997 Jul; 71(3):237-47. PMID: 9231866.
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    289. Watkins LR, Martin D, Ulrich P, Tracey KJ, Maier SF. Evidence for the involvement of spinal cord glia in subcutaneous formalin induced hyperalgesia in the rat. Pain. 1997 Jul; 71(3):225-35. PMID: 9231865.
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    290. Goehler LE, Relton JK, Dripps D, Kiechle R, Tartaglia N, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Vagal paraganglia bind biotinylated interleukin-1 receptor antagonist: a possible mechanism for immune-to-brain communication. Brain Res Bull. 1997; 43(3):357-64. PMID: 9227848.
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    291. Fleshner M, Silbert L, Deak T, Goehler LE, Martin D, Watkins LR, Maier SF. TNF-alpha-induced corticosterone elevation but not serum protein or corticosteroid binding globulin reduction is vagally mediated. Brain Res Bull. 1997; 44(6):701-6. PMID: 9421133.
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    292. Brennan FX, Cobb CL, Silbert LH, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Peripheral beta-adrenoreceptors and stress-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. Physiol Behav. 1996 Nov; 60(5):1307-10. PMID: 8916186.
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    293. Fleshner M, Brennan FX, Nguyen K, Watkins LR, Maier SF. RU-486 blocks differentially suppressive effect of stress on in vivo anti-KLH immunoglobulin response. Am J Physiol. 1996 Nov; 271(5 Pt 2):R1344-52. PMID: 8945973.
      View in: PubMed
    294. Watkins LR, Maier SF, Goehler LE. Immune activation: the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in inflammation, illness responses and pathological pain states. Pain. 1995 Dec; 63(3):289-302. PMID: 8719529.
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    295. Fleshner M, Deak T, Spencer RL, Laudenslager ML, Watkins LR, Maier SF. A long-term increase in basal levels of corticosterone and a decrease in corticosteroid-binding globulin after acute stressor exposure. Endocrinology. 1995 Dec; 136(12):5336-42. PMID: 7588279.
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    296. Grahn RE, Kalman BA, Brennan FX, Watkins LR, Maier SF. The elevated plus-maze is not sensitive to the effect of stressor controllability in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1995 Nov; 52(3):565-70. PMID: 8545475.
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    297. Maier SF, Watkins LR. Intracerebroventricular interleukin-1 receptor antagonist blocks the enhancement of fear conditioning and interference with escape produced by inescapable shock. Brain Res. 1995 Oct 16; 695(2):279-82. PMID: 8556346.
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    298. Watkins LR, Goehler LE, Relton J, Brewer MT, Maier SF. Mechanisms of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) hyperalgesia. Brain Res. 1995 Sep 18; 692(1-2):244-50. PMID: 8548310.
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    299. Maier SF, Grahn RE, Maswood S, Watkins LR. The benzodiazepine receptor antagonists flumazenil and CGS8216 block the enhancement of fear conditioning and interference with escape behavior produced by inescapable shock. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1995 Sep; 121(2):250-8. PMID: 8545531.
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    300. Maier SF, Busch CR, Maswood S, Grahn RE, Watkins LR. The dorsal raphe nucleus is a site of action mediating the behavioral effects of the benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonist DMCM. Behav Neurosci. 1995 Aug; 109(4):759-66. PMID: 7576219.
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    301. Maier SF, Grahn RE, Watkins LR. 8-OH-DPAT microinjected in the region of the dorsal raphe nucleus blocks and reverses the enhancement of fear conditioning and interference with escape produced by exposure to inescapable shock. Behav Neurosci. 1995 Jun; 109(3):404-12. PMID: 7662151.
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    302. Fleshner M, Hermann J, Lockwood LL, Laudenslager ML, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Stressed rats fail to expand the CD45RC+CD4+ (Th1-like) T cell subset in response to KLH: possible involvement of IFN-gamma. Brain Behav Immun. 1995 Jun; 9(2):101-12. PMID: 7549034.
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    303. Goehler LE, Busch CR, Tartaglia N, Relton J, Sisk D, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Blockade of cytokine induced conditioned taste aversion by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy: further evidence for vagal mediation of immune-brain communication. Neurosci Lett. 1995 Feb 13; 185(3):163-6. PMID: 7753482.
      View in: PubMed
    304. Watkins LR, Goehler LE, Relton JK, Tartaglia N, Silbert L, Martin D, Maier SF. Blockade of interleukin-1 induced hyperthermia by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy: evidence for vagal mediation of immune-brain communication. Neurosci Lett. 1995 Jan 02; 183(1-2):27-31. PMID: 7746479.
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    305. Fleshner M, Goehler LE, Hermann J, Relton JK, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Interleukin-1 beta induced corticosterone elevation and hypothalamic NE depletion is vagally mediated. Brain Res Bull. 1995; 37(6):605-10. PMID: 7670884.
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    306. Watkins LR, Maier SF, Goehler LE. Cytokine-to-brain communication: a review & analysis of alternative mechanisms. Life Sci. 1995; 57(11):1011-26. PMID: 7658909.
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    307. Fleshner M, Bellgrau D, Watkins LR, Laudenslager ML, Maier SF. Stress-induced reduction in the rat mixed lymphocyte reaction is due to macrophages and not to changes in T cell phenotypes. J Neuroimmunol. 1995 Jan; 56(1):45-52. PMID: 7822481.
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    308. Grisel JE, Wiertelak EP, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Route of morphine administration modulates conditioned analgesic tolerance and hyperalgesia. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1994 Dec; 49(4):1029-35. PMID: 7886072.
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    309. Maier SF, Watkins LR, Fleshner M. Psychoneuroimmunology. The interface between behavior, brain, and immunity. Am Psychol. 1994 Dec; 49(12):1004-17. PMID: 7818221.
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    310. Watkins LR, Wiertelak EP, Furness LE, Maier SF. Illness-induced hyperalgesia is mediated by spinal neuropeptides and excitatory amino acids. Brain Res. 1994 Nov 21; 664(1-2):17-24. PMID: 7534600.
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    311. Sutton LC, Fleshner M, Mazzeo R, Maier SF, Watkins LR. A permissive role of corticosterone in an opioid form of stress-induced analgesia: blockade of opiate analgesia is not due to stress-induced hormone release. Brain Res. 1994 Nov 07; 663(1):19-29. PMID: 7850467.
      View in: PubMed
    312. Watkins LR, Wiertelak EP, Goehler LE, Smith KP, Martin D, Maier SF. Characterization of cytokine-induced hyperalgesia. Brain Res. 1994 Aug 15; 654(1):15-26. PMID: 7982088.
      View in: PubMed
    313. Brett B, Di S, Watkins L, Barth DS. A horseradish peroxidase study of parallel thalamocortical projections responsible for the generation of mid-latency auditory-evoked potentials. Brain Res. 1994 May 30; 647(1):65-75. PMID: 8069706.
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    314. Watkins LR, Wiertelak EP, Goehler LE, Mooney-Heiberger K, Martinez J, Furness L, Smith KP, Maier SF. Neurocircuitry of illness-induced hyperalgesia. Brain Res. 1994 Mar 14; 639(2):283-99. PMID: 8205482.
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    315. Lockwood LL, Silbert LH, Fleshner M, Laudenslager ML, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Morphine-induced decreases in in vivo antibody responses. Brain Behav Immun. 1994 Mar; 8(1):24-36. PMID: 8003769.
      View in: PubMed
    316. Fleshner M, Brohm MM, Laudenslager ML, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Modulation of the in vivo antibody response by a benzodiazepine inverse agonist (DMCM) administered centrally or peripherally. Physiol Behav. 1993 Dec; 54(6):1149-54. PMID: 8295955.
      View in: PubMed
    317. Maier SF, Wiertelak EP, Martin D, Watkins LR. Interleukin-1 mediates the behavioral hyperalgesia produced by lithium chloride and endotoxin. Brain Res. 1993 Oct 01; 623(2):321-4. PMID: 8221116.
      View in: PubMed
    318. Lockwood LL, Silbert LH, Laudenslager ML, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Anesthesia-induced modulation of in vivo antibody levels: a study of pentobarbital, chloral hydrate, methoxyflurane, halothane, and ketamine/xylazine. Anesth Analg. 1993 Oct; 77(4):769-74. PMID: 8214663.
      View in: PubMed
    319. Grisel JE, Fleshner M, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Opioid and nonopioid interactions in two forms of stress-induced analgesia. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1993 May; 45(1):161-72. PMID: 8516354.
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    320. Watkins LR, Wiertelak EP, Maier SF. The amygdala is necessary for the expression of conditioned but not unconditioned analgesia. Behav Neurosci. 1993 Apr; 107(2):402-5. PMID: 8484903.
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    321. Maier SF, Grahn RE, Kalman BA, Sutton LC, Wiertelak EP, Watkins LR. The role of the amygdala and dorsal raphe nucleus in mediating the behavioral consequences of inescapable shock. Behav Neurosci. 1993 Apr; 107(2):377-88. PMID: 8484901.
      View in: PubMed
    322. Fleshner M, Watkins LR, Lockwood LL, Grahn RE, Gerhardt G, Meaney MJ, Laudenslager ML, Maier SF. Blockade of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response to stress by intraventricular injection of dexamethasone: a method for studying the stress-induced peripheral effects of glucocorticoids. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1993; 18(4):251-63. PMID: 8391148.
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    323. Fleshner M, Watkins LR, Lockwood LL, Bellgrau D, Laudenslager ML, Maier SF. Specific changes in lymphocyte subpopulations: a potential mechanism for stress-induced immunomodulation. J Neuroimmunol. 1992 Dec; 41(2):131-42. PMID: 1469075.
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    324. Watkins LR, Wiertelak EP, Grisel JE, Silbert LH, Maier SF. Parallel activation of multiple spinal opiate systems appears to mediate 'non-opiate' stress-induced analgesias. Brain Res. 1992 Oct 23; 594(1):99-108. PMID: 1334766.
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    325. Watkins LR, Wiertelak EP, Maier SF. Delta opiate receptors mediate tail-shock induced antinociception at supraspinal levels. Brain Res. 1992 Jun 05; 582(1):10-21. PMID: 1323369.
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    326. Watkins LR, Wiertelak EP, Maier SF. Kappa opiate receptors mediate tail-shock induced antinociception at spinal levels. Brain Res. 1992 Jun 05; 582(1):1-9. PMID: 1354010.
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    327. Wiertelak EP, Maier SF, Watkins LR. Cholecystokinin antianalgesia: safety cues abolish morphine analgesia. Science. 1992 May 08; 256(5058):830-3. PMID: 1589765.
      View in: PubMed
    328. Brennan FX, Job RF, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Total plasma cholesterol levels of rats are increased following only three sessions of tailshock. Life Sci. 1992; 50(13):945-50. PMID: 1548978.
      View in: PubMed
    329. Fleshner M, Watkins LR, Redd JM, Kruse CA, Bellgrau D. A 9L gliosarcoma transplantation model for studying adoptive immunotherapy into the brains of conscious rats. Cell Transplant. 1992; 1(4):307-12. PMID: 1344303.
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    330. Watkins LR, Thurston CL, Fleshner M. Phenylephrine-induced antinociception: investigations of potential neural and endocrine bases. Brain Res. 1990 Oct 01; 528(2):273-84. PMID: 2271928.
      View in: PubMed
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