Colorado PROFILES, The Colorado Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (CCTSI)
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Mario L Santiago

TitleAssociate Professor
InstitutionUniversity of Colorado Denver - Anschutz Medical Campus
DepartmentSOM-MED
Phone303/724-4946

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    Our laboratory studies the interplay between the innate and adaptive immune response against retroviruses to conceptually advance vaccine and cure strategies against HIV/AIDS. We are specifically interested in “restriction factors” – host proteins that could directly inhibit retroviruses but we discovered also play critical roles in shaping adaptive immune responses. These factors could be regulated by Type I interferons, thus highlighting possibilities for clinical translation.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse research activities and funding
    R56AI084123     (SANTIAGO, MARIO LUIS)Sep 22, 2009 - Feb 28, 2011
    NIH/NIAID
    Apobec3 and the Neutralizing Antibody Response Against Pathogenic Retroviruses
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01AI090795     (SANTIAGO, MARIO LUIS)Jun 1, 2010 - May 31, 2014
    NIH/NIAID
    Innate Restriction Factor Modulation of Retrovirus-specific Humoral Immunity
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R21AI112418     (SANTIAGO, MARIO LUIS)Aug 25, 2014 - Jul 31, 2016
    NIH/NIAID
    Immunological impact of Tetherin retrovirus restriction
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R56AI116271     (SANTIAGO, MARIO LUIS)Apr 16, 2015 - Mar 31, 2016
    NIH/NIAID
    HIV-Associated Interferon Effector Mechanisms in the GALT
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01AI116603     (SANTIAGO, MARIO LUIS)Dec 1, 2015 - Nov 30, 2020
    NIH/NIAID
    APOBEC3/Rfv3 and Immunoglobulin Somatic Hypermutation
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01AI134220     (SANTIAGO, MARIO LUIS)May 1, 2017 - Apr 30, 2022
    NIH/NIAID
    Role of Type I IFNs in Mucosal HIV-1 Immunity and Pathogenesis
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Miller SM, Miles B, Guo K, Folkvord J, Meditz AL, McCarter MD, Levy DN, MaWhinney S, Santiago ML, Connick E. Follicular Regulatory T Cells Are Highly Permissive to R5-Tropic HIV-1. J Virol. 2017 Sep 01; 91(17). PMID: 28615202.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Schroeder KMS, Agazio A, Strauch PJ, Jones ST, Thompson SB, Harper MS, Pelanda R, Santiago ML, Torres RM. Breaching peripheral tolerance promotes the production of HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies. J Exp Med. 2017 Aug 07; 214(8):2283-2302. PMID: 28698284.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Barrett BS, Harper MS, Jones ST, Guo K, Heilman KJ, Kedl RM, Hasenkrug KJ, Santiago ML. Type I interferon signaling is required for the APOBEC3/Rfv3-dependent neutralizing antibody response but not innate retrovirus restriction. Retrovirology. 2017 Apr 17; 14(1):25. PMID: 28415995.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Getahun A, Wemlinger SM, Rudra P, Santiago ML, van Dyk LF, Cambier JC. Impaired B cell function during viral infections due to PTEN-mediated inhibition of the PI3K pathway. J Exp Med. 2017 Apr 03; 214(4):931-941. PMID: 28341640.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Yoder AC, Guo K, Dillon SM, Phang T, Lee EJ, Harper MS, Helm K, Kappes JC, Ochsenbauer C, McCarter MD, Wilson CC, Santiago ML. The transcriptome of HIV-1 infected intestinal CD4+ T cells exposed to enteric bacteria. PLoS Pathog. 2017 Feb; 13(2):e1006226. PMID: 28241075.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Dillon SM, Kibbie J, Lee EJ, Guo K, Santiago ML, Austin GL, Gianella S, Landay AL, Donovan AM, Frank DN, McCARTER MD, Wilson CC. Low abundance of colonic butyrate-producing bacteria in HIV infection is associated with microbial translocation and immune activation. AIDS. 2017 Feb 20; 31(4):511-521. PMID: 28002063.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Rubtsova K, Rubtsov AV, Halemano K, Li SX, Kappler JW, Santiago ML, Marrack P. T Cell Production of IFN? in Response to TLR7/IL-12 Stimulates Optimal B Cell Responses to Viruses. PLoS One. 2016; 11(11):e0166322. PMID: 27880772.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Wang Y, Wang Z, Pramanik A, Santiago ML, Qiu J, Stephens EB. A chimeric human APOBEC3A protein with a three amino acid insertion confers differential HIV-1 and adeno-associated virus restriction. Virology. 2016 Nov; 498:149-163. PMID: 27584592.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Lavender KJ, Gibbert K, Peterson KE, Van Dis E, Francois S, Woods T, Messer RJ, Gawanbacht A, Müller JA, Münch J, Phillips K, Race B, Harper MS, Guo K, Lee EJ, Trilling M, Hengel H, Piehler J, Verheyen J, Wilson CC, Santiago ML, Hasenkrug KJ, Dittmer U. Interferon Alpha Subtype-Specific Suppression of HIV-1 Infection In Vivo. J Virol. 2016 Jul 01; 90(13):6001-13. PMID: 27099312; PMCID: PMC4907223 [Available on 12/10/16].
    10. Dillon SM, Santiago ML, Wilson CC. Encyclopedia of AIDS (eds. Hope TJ, Stevenson M, Richman D). HIV-1 pathogenesis in the gut. 2016; 1-8.
    11. Li SX, Barrett BS, Guo K, Kassiotis G, Hasenkrug KJ, Dittmer U, Gibbert K, Santiago ML. Tetherin/BST-2 promotes dendritic cell activation and function during acute retrovirus infection. Sci Rep. 2016 Feb 05; 6:20425. PMID: 26846717; PMCID: PMC4742778.
    12. Dillon SM, Lee EJ, Donovan AM, Guo K, Harper MS, Frank DN, McCarter MD, Santiago ML, Wilson CC. Enhancement of HIV-1 infection and intestinal CD4+ T cell depletion ex vivo by gut microbes altered during chronic HIV-1 infection. Retrovirology. 2016 Jan 14; 13:5. PMID: 26762145; PMCID: PMC4712466.
    13. Li SX, Barrett BS, Guo K, Santiago ML. Tetherin/BST-2: Restriction Factor or Immunomodulator? Curr HIV Res. 2016; 14(3):235-46. PMID: 26957198.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Harper MS, Guo K, Gibbert K, Lee EJ, Dillon SM, Barrett BS, McCarter MD, Hasenkrug KJ, Dittmer U, Wilson CC, Santiago ML. Interferon-a Subtypes in an Ex Vivo Model of Acute HIV-1 Infection: Expression, Potency and Effector Mechanisms. PLoS Pathog. 2015; 11(11):e1005254. PMID: 26529416; PMCID: PMC4631339.
    15. Wang Y, Schmitt K, Guo K, Santiago ML, Stephens EB. Role of the single deaminase domain APOBEC3A in virus restriction, retrotransposition, DNA damage and cancer. J Gen Virol. 2016 Jan; 97(1):1-17. PMID: 26489798.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Guo K, Halemano K, Schmitt K, Katuwal M, Wang Y, Harper MS, Heilman KJ, Kuwata T, Stephens EB, Santiago ML. Immunoglobulin VH gene diversity and somatic hypermutation during SIV infection of rhesus macaques. Immunogenetics. 2015 Jul; 67(7):355-70. PMID: 25994147.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Halemano K, Barrett BS, Heilman KJ, Morrison TE, Santiago ML. Requirement for Fc effector mechanisms in the APOBEC3/Rfv3-dependent neutralizing antibody response. J Virol. 2015 Apr; 89(7):4011-4. PMID: 25589647; PMCID: PMC4403405.
    18. Gibbert K, Francois S, Sigmund AM, Harper MS, Barrett BS, Kirchning CJ, Lu M, Santiago ML, Dittmer U. Friend retrovirus drives cytotoxic effectors through Toll-like receptor 3. Retrovirology. 2014 Dec 24; 11:126. PMID: 25539593; PMCID: PMC4299798.
    19. Connick E, Folkvord JM, Lind KT, Rakasz EG, Miles B, Wilson NA, Santiago ML, Schmitt K, Stephens EB, Kim HO, Wagstaff R, Li S, Abdelaal HM, Kemp N, Watkins DI, MaWhinney S, Skinner PJ. Compartmentalization of simian immunodeficiency virus replication within secondary lymphoid tissues of rhesus macaques is linked to disease stage and inversely related to localization of virus-specific CTL. J Immunol. 2014 Dec 01; 193(11):5613-25. PMID: 25362178; PMCID: PMC4239212.
    20. Warren CJ, Xu T, Guo K, Griffin LM, Westrich JA, Lee D, Lambert PF, Santiago ML, Pyeon D. APOBEC3A functions as a restriction factor of human papillomavirus. J Virol. 2015 Jan; 89(1):688-702. PMID: 25355878; PMCID: PMC4301161.
    21. Barrett BS, Guo K, Harper MS, Li SX, Heilman KJ, Davidson NO, Santiago ML. Reassessment of murine APOBEC1 as a retrovirus restriction factor in vivo. Virology. 2014 Nov; 468-470:601-8. PMID: 25303118; PMCID: PMC4430097.
    22. Katuwal M, Wang Y, Schmitt K, Guo K, Halemano K, Santiago ML, Stephens EB. Cellular HIV-1 inhibition by truncated old world primate APOBEC3A proteins lacking a complete deaminase domain. Virology. 2014 Nov; 468-470:532-44. PMID: 25262471; PMCID: PMC4252819.
    23. Li SX, Barrett BS, Heilman KJ, Messer RJ, Liberatore RA, Bieniasz PD, Kassiotis G, Hasenkrug KJ, Santiago ML. Tetherin promotes the innate and adaptive cell-mediated immune response against retrovirus infection in vivo. J Immunol. 2014 Jul 01; 193(1):306-16. PMID: 24872193; PMCID: PMC4163935.
    24. Halemano K, Guo K, Heilman KJ, Barrett BS, Smith DS, Hasenkrug KJ, Santiago ML. Immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation by APOBEC3/Rfv3 during retroviral infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 May 27; 111(21):7759-64. PMID: 24821801; PMCID: PMC4040588.
    25. Steele AK, Lee EJ, Manuzak JA, Dillon SM, Beckham JD, McCarter MD, Santiago ML, Wilson CC. Microbial exposure alters HIV-1-induced mucosal CD4+ T cell death pathways Ex vivo. Retrovirology. 2014 Feb 04; 11:14. PMID: 24495380; PMCID: PMC3922902.
    26. Cavrois M, Neidleman J, Santiago ML, Derdeyn CA, Hunter E, Greene WC. Enhanced fusion and virion incorporation for HIV-1 subtype C envelope glycoproteins with compact V1/V2 domains. J Virol. 2014 Feb; 88(4):2083-94. PMID: 24335304; PMCID: PMC3911571.
    27. Li SX, Barrett BS, Harper MS, Heilman KJ, Halemano K, Steele AK, Guo K, Silverman RH, Santiago ML. Ribonuclease L is not critical for innate restriction and adaptive immunity against Friend retrovirus infection. Virology. 2013 Aug 15; 443(1):134-42. PMID: 23725696; PMCID: PMC3866974.
    28. Schmitt K, Guo K, Katuwal M, Wilson D, Prochnow C, Bransteitter R, Chen XS, Santiago ML, Stephens EB. Lentivirus restriction by diverse primate APOBEC3A proteins. Virology. 2013 Jul 20; 442(1):82-96. PMID: 23648232.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Halemano K, Barrett BS, Li SX, Harper MS, Smith DS, Heilman KJ, Santiago ML. Fv1 restriction and retrovirus vaccine immunity in Apobec3-deficient 129P2 mice. PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e60500. PMID: 23533681; PMCID: PMC3606284.
    30. Halemano K, Harper MS, Guo K, Li SX, Heilman KJ, Barrett BS, Santiago ML. Humoral immunity in the Friend retrovirus infection model. Immunol Res. 2013 Mar; 55(1-3):249-60. PMID: 22961660; PMCID: PMC4003891.
    31. Harper MS, Barrett BS, Smith DS, Li SX, Gibbert K, Dittmer U, Hasenkrug KJ, Santiago ML. IFN-a treatment inhibits acute Friend retrovirus replication primarily through the antiviral effector molecule Apobec3. J Immunol. 2013 Feb 15; 190(4):1583-90. PMID: 23315078; PMCID: PMC3654153.
    32. Fischer W, Apetrei C, Santiago ML, Li Y, Gautam R, Pandrea I, Shaw GM, Hahn BH, Letvin NL, Nabel GJ, Korber BT. Distinct evolutionary pressures underlie diversity in simian immunodeficiency virus and human immunodeficiency virus lineages. J Virol. 2012 Dec; 86(24):13217-31. PMID: 23055550; PMCID: PMC3503124.
    33. Barrett BS, Smith DS, Li SX, Guo K, Hasenkrug KJ, Santiago ML. A single nucleotide polymorphism in tetherin promotes retrovirus restriction in vivo. PLoS Pathog. 2012; 8(3):e1002596. PMID: 22457621; PMCID: PMC3310811.
    34. Smith DS, Guo K, Barrett BS, Heilman KJ, Evans LH, Hasenkrug KJ, Greene WC, Santiago ML. Noninfectious retrovirus particles drive the APOBEC3/Rfv3 dependent neutralizing antibody response. PLoS Pathog. 2011 Oct; 7(10):e1002284. PMID: 21998583; PMCID: PMC3188525.
    35. Schmitt K, Guo K, Algaier M, Ruiz A, Cheng F, Qiu J, Wissing S, Santiago ML, Stephens EB. Differential virus restriction patterns of rhesus macaque and human APOBEC3A: implications for lentivirus evolution. Virology. 2011 Oct 10; 419(1):24-42. PMID: 21868050; PMCID: PMC4104698.
    36. Doitsh G, Cavrois M, Lassen KG, Zepeda O, Yang Z, Santiago ML, Hebbeler AM, Greene WC. Abortive HIV infection mediates CD4 T cell depletion and inflammation in human lymphoid tissue. Cell. 2010 Nov 24; 143(5):789-801. PMID: 21111238; PMCID: PMC3026834.
    37. Santiago ML, Smith DS, Barrett BS, Montano M, Benitez RL, Pelanda R, Hasenkrug KJ, Greene WC. Persistent Friend virus replication and disease in Apobec3-deficient mice expressing functional B-cell-activating factor receptor. J Virol. 2011 Jan; 85(1):189-99. PMID: 20980520; PMCID: PMC3014173.
    38. Kolokithas A, Rosenke K, Malik F, Hendrick D, Swanson L, Santiago ML, Portis JL, Hasenkrug KJ, Evans LH. The glycosylated Gag protein of a murine leukemia virus inhibits the antiretroviral function of APOBEC3. J Virol. 2010 Oct; 84(20):10933-6. PMID: 20702647; PMCID: PMC2950561.
    39. Lassen KG, Wissing S, Lobritz MA, Santiago M, Greene WC. Identification of two APOBEC3F splice variants displaying HIV-1 antiviral activity and contrasting sensitivity to Vif. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 17; 285(38):29326-35. PMID: 20624919; PMCID: PMC2937965.
    40. Santiago ML, Benitez RL, Montano M, Hasenkrug KJ, Greene WC. Innate retroviral restriction by Apobec3 promotes antibody affinity maturation in vivo. J Immunol. 2010 Jul 15; 185(2):1114-23. PMID: 20566830; PMCID: PMC3024598.
    41. Decker JM, Zammit KP, Easlick JL, Santiago ML, Bonenberger D, Hahn BH, Kutsch O, Bibollet-Ruche F. Effective activation alleviates the replication block of CCR5-tropic HIV-1 in chimpanzee CD4+ lymphocytes. Virology. 2009 Nov 10; 394(1):109-18. PMID: 19748647; PMCID: PMC2767406.
    42. Santiago ML, Montano M, Benitez R, Messer RJ, Yonemoto W, Chesebro B, Hasenkrug KJ, Greene WC. Apobec3 encodes Rfv3, a gene influencing neutralizing antibody control of retrovirus infection. Science. 2008 Sep 05; 321(5894):1343-6. PMID: 18772436; PMCID: PMC2701658.
    43. Liu W, Worobey M, Li Y, Keele BF, Bibollet-Ruche F, Guo Y, Goepfert PA, Santiago ML, Ndjango JB, Neel C, Clifford SL, Sanz C, Kamenya S, Wilson ML, Pusey AE, Gross-Camp N, Boesch C, Smith V, Zamma K, Huffman MA, Mitani JC, Watts DP, Peeters M, Shaw GM, Switzer WM, Sharp PM, Hahn BH. Molecular ecology and natural history of simian foamy virus infection in wild-living chimpanzees. PLoS Pathog. 2008 Jul 04; 4(7):e1000097. PMID: 18604273; PMCID: PMC2435277.
    44. Takehisa J, Kraus MH, Decker JM, Li Y, Keele BF, Bibollet-Ruche F, Zammit KP, Weng Z, Santiago ML, Kamenya S, Wilson ML, Pusey AE, Bailes E, Sharp PM, Shaw GM, Hahn BH. Generation of infectious molecular clones of simian immunodeficiency virus from fecal consensus sequences of wild chimpanzees. J Virol. 2007 Jul; 81(14):7463-75. PMID: 17494082; PMCID: PMC1933379.
    45. Santiago ML, Greene WC. The role of the APOBEC3 family of cytidine deaminases in innate immunity, G to A hypermutation, and evolution of retroviruses. In: The Origin and Evolution of Viruses, E. Domingo, C. Parish, J.L. Holland (eds.). 2007.
    46. Schindler M, Münch J, Kutsch O, Li H, Santiago ML, Bibollet-Ruche F, Müller-Trutwin MC, Novembre FJ, Peeters M, Courgnaud V, Bailes E, Roques P, Sodora DL, Silvestri G, Sharp PM, Hahn BH, Kirchhoff F. Nef-mediated suppression of T cell activation was lost in a lentiviral lineage that gave rise to HIV-1. Cell. 2006 Jun 16; 125(6):1055-67. PMID: 16777597.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Keele BF, Van Heuverswyn F, Li Y, Bailes E, Takehisa J, Santiago ML, Bibollet-Ruche F, Chen Y, Wain LV, Liegeois F, Loul S, Ngole EM, Bienvenue Y, Delaporte E, Brookfield JF, Sharp PM, Shaw GM, Peeters M, Hahn BH. Chimpanzee reservoirs of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV-1. Science. 2006 Jul 28; 313(5786):523-6. PMID: 16728595; PMCID: PMC2442710.
    48. Chiu Y-L, Witkowska E, Hall SC, Santiago M, Soros VB, Esnault C, Heidmann T, Greene WC. 2006. . High molecular mass APOBEC3G complexes restrict Alu retrotransposition. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006; 42(103):15588-15593.
    49. Santiago ML, Range F, Keele BF, Li Y, Bailes E, Bibollet-Ruche F, Fruteau C, Noë R, Peeters M, Brookfield JF, Shaw GM, Sharp PM, Hahn BH. Simian immunodeficiency virus infection in free-ranging sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys) from the Taï Forest, Côte d'Ivoire: implications for the origin of epidemic human immunodeficiency virus type 2. J Virol. 2005 Oct; 79(19):12515-27. PMID: 16160179; PMCID: PMC1211554.
    50. Gomez LM, Pacyniak E, Flick M, Hout DR, Gomez ML, Nerrienet E, Ayouba A, Santiago ML, Hahn BH, Stephens EB. Vpu-mediated CD4 down-regulation and degradation is conserved among highly divergent SIV(cpz) strains. Virology. 2005 Apr 25; 335(1):46-60. PMID: 15823605.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Nerrienet E, Santiago ML, Foupouapouognigni Y, Bailes E, Mundy NI, Njinku B, Kfutwah A, Muller-Trutwin MC, Barre-Sinoussi F, Shaw GM, Sharp PM, Hahn BH, Ayouba A. Simian immunodeficiency virus infection in wild-caught chimpanzees from cameroon. J Virol. 2005 Jan; 79(2):1312-9. PMID: 15613358; PMCID: PMC538556.
    52. Kirchhoff F, Schindler M, Bailer N, Renkema GH, Saksela K, Knoop V, Müller-Trutwin MC, Santiago ML, Bibollet-Ruche F, Dittmar MT, Heeney JL, Hahn BH, Münch J. Nef proteins from simian immunodeficiency virus-infected chimpanzees interact with p21-activated kinase 2 and modulate cell surface expression of various human receptors. J Virol. 2004 Jul; 78(13):6864-74. PMID: 15194762; PMCID: PMC421647.
    53. Worobey M, Santiago ML, Keele BF, Ndjango JB, Joy JB, Labama BL, Dhed'A BD, Rambaut A, Sharp PM, Shaw GM, Hahn BH. Origin of AIDS: contaminated polio vaccine theory refuted. Nature. 2004 Apr 22; 428(6985):820. PMID: 15103367.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Santiago ML, Bibollet-Ruche F, Gross-Camp N, Majewski AC, Masozera M, Munanura I, Kaplin BA, Sharp PM, Shaw GM, Hahn BH. Noninvasive detection of Simian immunodeficiency virus infection in a wild-living L'Hoest's monkey (Cercopithecus Ihoesti). AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2003 Dec; 19(12):1163-6. PMID: 14717118.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Santiago ML, Lukasik M, Kamenya S, Li Y, Bibollet-Ruche F, Bailes E, Muller MN, Emery M, Goldenberg DA, Lwanga JS, Ayouba A, Nerrienet E, McClure HM, Heeney JL, Watts DP, Pusey AE, Collins DA, Wrangham RW, Goodall J, Brookfield JF, Sharp PM, Shaw GM, Hahn BH. Foci of endemic simian immunodeficiency virus infection in wild-living eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). J Virol. 2003 Jul; 77(13):7545-62. PMID: 12805455; PMCID: PMC164799.
    56. Ling B, Santiago ML, Meleth S, Gormus B, McClure HM, Apetrei C, Hahn BH, Marx PA. Noninvasive detection of new simian immunodeficiency virus lineages in captive sooty mangabeys: ability to amplify virion RNA from fecal samples correlates with viral load in plasma. J Virol. 2003 Feb; 77(3):2214-26. PMID: 12525656; PMCID: PMC140942.
    57. Santiago ML, Bibollet-Ruche F, Bailes E, Kamenya S, Muller MN, Lukasik M, Pusey AE, Collins DA, Wrangham RW, Goodall J, Shaw GM, Sharp PM, Hahn BH. Amplification of a complete simian immunodeficiency virus genome from fecal RNA of a wild chimpanzee. J Virol. 2003 Feb; 77(3):2233-42. PMID: 12525658; PMCID: PMC140993.
    58. Santiago ML, Rodenburg CM, Kamenya S, Bibollet-Ruche F, Gao F, Bailes E, Meleth S, Soong SJ, Kilby JM, Moldoveanu Z, Fahey B, Muller MN, Ayouba A, Nerrienet E, McClure HM, Heeney JL, Pusey AE, Collins DA, Boesch C, Wrangham RW, Goodall J, Sharp PM, Shaw GM, Hahn BH. SIVcpz in wild chimpanzees. Science. 2002 Jan 18; 295(5554):465. PMID: 11799233.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Bailes E, Chaudhuri RR, Santiago ML, Bibollet-Ruche F, Hahn BH and Sharp PM. The evolution of primate lentiviruses and the origin of AIDS. In The Molecular Epidemiology of Human Viruses, T. Leitner (ed.) p. 65-95. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA. 2002.
    60. Torres EP, Ramirez BL, Salazar F, Pasay MC, Alamares JG, Santiago ML, Hafalla JC. Detection of bancroftian filariasis in human blood samples from Sorsogon province, the Philippines by polymerase chain reaction. Parasitol Res. 2001 Aug; 87(8):677-9. PMID: 11511008.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Sharp PM, Bailes E, Chaudhuri RR, Rodenburg CM, Santiago MO, Hahn BH. The origins of acquired immune deficiency syndrome viruses: where and when? Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2001 Jun 29; 356(1410):867-76. PMID: 11405934; PMCID: PMC1088480.
    62. Mahalingam S, Van Tine B, Santiago ML, Gao F, Shaw GM, Hahn BH. Functional analysis of the simian immunodeficiency virus Vpx protein: identification of packaging determinants and a novel nuclear targeting domain. J Virol. 2001 Jan; 75(1):362-74. PMID: 11119605; PMCID: PMC113929.
    63. Hernandez MG, Hafalla JC, Acosta LP, Aligui FF, Aligui GD, Ramirez BL, Dunne DW, Santiago ML. Paramyosin is a major target of the human IgA response against Schistosoma japonicum. Parasite Immunol. 1999 Dec; 21(12):641-7. PMID: 10583866.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Hafalla JC, Alamares JG, Acosta LP, Dunne DW, Ramirez BL, Santiago ML. Molecular identification of a 21.7 kDa schistosoma japonicum antigen as a target of the human IgE response. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1999 Jan 05; 98(1):157-61. PMID: 10029318.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Santiago ML, Santiago EG, Hafalla JC, Manalo MA, Orantia L, Cajimat MN, Martin C, Cuaresma C, Dominguez CE, Borromeo ME, De Groot AS, Flanigan TP, Carpenter CC, Mayer KH, Ramirez BL. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in the Philippines, 1985 to 1997: transmission of subtypes B and E and potential emergence of subtypes C and F. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998 Jul 01; 18(3):260-9. PMID: 9665504.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Santiago ML, Hafalla JC, Kurtis JD, Aligui GL, Wiest PM, Olveda RM, Olds GR, Dunne DW, Ramirez BL. Identification of the Schistosoma japonicum 22.6-kDa antigen as a major target of the human IgE response: similarity of IgE-binding epitopes to allergen peptides. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1998; 2(117):94-104.
    67. Hafalla JC, Santiago ML, Pasay MC, Ramirez BL, Gozar MM, Saul A, Kaslow DC. Minimal variation in the Pfs28 ookinete antigen from Philippine field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1997 Jul; 87(1):97-9. PMID: 9233677.
      View in: PubMed
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