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Paul J Norman

TitleAssociate Professor
InstitutionUniversity of Colorado Denver - Anschutz Medical Campus
DepartmentSOM-MED

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Misra MK, Augusto DG, Martin GM, Nemat-Gorgani N, Sauter J, Hofmann JA, Traherne JA, González-Quezada B, Gorodezky C, Bultitude WP, Marin W, Vierra-Green C, Anderson KM, Balas A, Caro-Oleas JL, Cisneros E, Colucci F, Dandekar R, Elfishawi SM, Fernández-Viña MA, Fouda M, González-Fernández R, Große A, Herrero-Mata MJ, Hollenbach SQ, Marsh SGE, Mentzer A, Middleton D, Moffett A, Moreno-Hidalgo MA, Mossallam GI, Nakimuli A, Oksenberg JR, Oppenheimer SJ, Parham P, Petzl-Erler ML, Planelles D, Sánchez-García F, Sánchez-Gordo F, Schmidt AH, Trowsdale J, Vargas LB, Vicario JL, Vilches C, Norman PJ, Hollenbach JA. Report from the Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) component of the 17th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop. Hum Immunol. 2018 Oct 12. PMID: 30321631.
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    2. Huhn O, Chazara O, Ivarsson MA, Retière C, Venkatesan TC, Norman PJ, Hilton HG, Jayaraman J, Traherne JA, Trowsdale J, Ito M, Kling C, Parham P, Ghadially H, Moffett A, Sharkey AM, Colucci F. High-Resolution Genetic and Phenotypic Analysis of KIR2DL1 Alleles and Their Association with Pre-Eclampsia. J Immunol. 2018 Nov 01; 201(9):2593-2601. PMID: 30249807.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Nemat-Gorgani N, Hilton HG, Henn BM, Lin M, Gignoux CR, Myrick JW, Werely CJ, Granka JM, Möller M, Hoal EG, Yawata M, Yawata N, Boelen L, Asquith B, Parham P, Norman PJ. Different Selected Mechanisms Attenuated the Inhibitory Interaction of KIR2DL1 with C2+ HLA-C in Two Indigenous Human Populations in Southern Africa. J Immunol. 2018 Apr 15; 200(8):2640-2655. PMID: 29549179.
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    4. Pugh JL, Nemat-Gorgani N, Norman PJ, Guethlein LA, Parham P. Human NK Cells Downregulate Zap70 and Syk in Response to Prolonged Activation or DNA Damage. J Immunol. 2018 02 01; 200(3):1146-1158. PMID: 29263215.
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    5. Blokhuis JH, Hilton HG, Guethlein LA, Norman PJ, Nemat-Gorgani N, Nakimuli A, Chazara O, Moffett A, Parham P. KIR2DS5 allotypes that recognize the C2 epitope of HLA-C are common among Africans and absent from Europeans. Immun Inflamm Dis. 2017 12; 5(4):461-468. PMID: 28685972.
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    6. Robinson J, Guethlein LA, Cereb N, Yang SY, Norman PJ, Marsh SGE, Parham P. Distinguishing functional polymorphism from random variation in the sequences of >10,000 HLA-A, -B and -C alleles. PLoS Genet. 2017 Jun; 13(6):e1006862. PMID: 28650991.
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    7. Djaoud Z, Guethlein LA, Horowitz A, Azzi T, Nemat-Gorgani N, Olive D, Nadal D, Norman PJ, Münz C, Parham P. Two alternate strategies for innate immunity to Epstein-Barr virus: One using NK cells and the other NK cells and ?d T cells. J Exp Med. 2017 06 05; 214(6):1827-1841. PMID: 28468758.
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    8. Norman PJ, Norberg SJ, Guethlein LA, Nemat-Gorgani N, Royce T, Wroblewski EE, Dunn T, Mann T, Alicata C, Hollenbach JA, Chang W, Shults Won M, Gunderson KL, Abi-Rached L, Ronaghi M, Parham P. Sequences of 95 human MHC haplotypes reveal extreme coding variation in genes other than highly polymorphic HLA class I and II. Genome Res. 2017 05; 27(5):813-823. PMID: 28360230.
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    9. Wroblewski EE, Guethlein LA, Norman PJ, Li Y, Shaw CM, Han AS, Ndjango JN, Ahuka-Mundeke S, Georgiev AV, Peeters M, Hahn BH, Parham P. Bonobos Maintain Immune System Diversity with Three Functional Types of MHC-B. J Immunol. 2017 May 01; 198(9):3480-3493. PMID: 28348269.
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    10. Guethlein LA, Norman PJ, Heijmans CM, de Groot NG, Hilton HG, Babrzadeh F, Abi-Rached L, Bontrop RE, Parham P. Two Orangutan Species Have Evolved Different KIR Alleles and Haplotypes. J Immunol. 2017 04 15; 198(8):3157-3169. PMID: 28264973.
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    11. Hilton HG, Blokhuis JH, Guethlein LA, Norman PJ, Parham P. Resurrecting KIR2DP1: A Key Intermediate in the Evolution of Human Inhibitory NK Cell Receptors That Recognize HLA-C. J Immunol. 2017 03 01; 198(5):1961-1973. PMID: 28122963.
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    12. Béziat V, Hilton HG, Norman PJ, Traherne JA. Deciphering the killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor system at super-resolution for natural killer and T-cell biology. Immunology. 2017 03; 150(3):248-264. PMID: 27779741.
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    13. Horowitz A, Djaoud Z, Nemat-Gorgani N, Blokhuis J, Hilton HG, Béziat V, Malmberg KJ, Norman PJ, Guethlein LA, Parham P. Class I HLA haplotypes form two schools that educate NK cells in different ways. Sci Immunol. 2016 Sep; 1(3). PMID: 27868107.
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    14. Horowitz A, Djaoud Z, Nemat-Gorgani N, Blokhuis J, Hilton HG, Béziat V, Malmberg KJ, Norman PJ, Guethlein LA, Parham P. Class I HLA haplotypes form two schools that educate NK cells in different ways. Sci Immunol. 2016 Sep 09; 1(3):eaag1672. PMID: 28783683.
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    15. Ashouri E, Norman PJ, Guethlein LA, Han AS, Nemat-Gorgani N, Norberg SJ, Ghaderi A, Parham P. HLA class I variation in Iranian Lur and Kurd populations: high haplotype and allotype diversity with an abundance of KIR ligands. HLA. 2016 09; 88(3):87-99. PMID: 27558013.
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    16. Norman PJ, Hollenbach JA, Nemat-Gorgani N, Marin WM, Norberg SJ, Ashouri E, Jayaraman J, Wroblewski EE, Trowsdale J, Rajalingam R, Oksenberg JR, Chiaroni J, Guethlein LA, Traherne JA, Ronaghi M, Parham P. Defining KIR and HLA Class I Genotypes at Highest Resolution via High-Throughput Sequencing. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 Aug 04; 99(2):375-91. PMID: 27486779; PMCID: PMC4974113 [Available on 02/04/17].
    17. Alicata C, Pende D, Meazza R, Canevali P, Loiacono F, Bertaina A, Locatelli F, Nemat-Gorgani N, Guethlein LA, Parham P, Moretta L, Moretta A, Bottino C, Norman PJ, Falco M. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Improving alloreactive Bw4 donor selection by genotyping codon 86 of KIR3DL1/S1. Eur J Immunol. 2016 06; 46(6):1511-7. PMID: 26990677.
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    18. Alicata C, Bottino C, Guethlein LA, Parham P, Norman PJ. Description of the novel KIR2DL4*035 allele identified using high-throughput sequencing. HLA. 2016 Mar; 87(3):191-3. PMID: 26917249.
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    19. Horowitz A, Guethlein LA, Nemat-Gorgani N, Norman PJ, Cooley S, Miller JS, Parham P. Regulation of Adaptive NK Cells and CD8 T Cells by HLA-C Correlates with Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation and with Cytomegalovirus Reactivation. J Immunol. 2015 Nov 01; 195(9):4524-36. PMID: 26416275; PMCID: PMC4610859 [Available on 11/01/16].
    20. Mack SJ, Milius RP, Gifford BD, Sauter J, Hofmann J, Osoegawa K, Robinson J, Groeneweg M, Turenchalk GS, Adai A, Holcomb C, Rozemuller EH, Penning MT, Heuer ML, Wang C, Salit ML, Schmidt AH, Parham PR, Müller C, Hague T, Fischer G, Fernandez-Vina M, Hollenbach JA, Norman PJ, Maiers M. Minimum information for reporting next generation sequence genotyping (MIRING): Guidelines for reporting HLA and KIR genotyping via next generation sequencing. Hum Immunol. 2015 Dec; 76(12):954-62. PMID: 26407912; PMCID: PMC4674382 [Available on 12/01/16].
    21. Guethlein LA, Norman PJ, Hilton HG, Parham P. Co-evolution of MHC class I and variable NK cell receptors in placental mammals. Immunol Rev. 2015 09; 267(1):259-82. PMID: 26284483; PMCID: PMC4587382.
    22. Hilton HG, Guethlein LA, Goyos A, Nemat-Gorgani N, Bushnell DA, Norman PJ, Parham P. Polymorphic HLA-C Receptors Balance the Functional Characteristics of KIR Haplotypes. J Immunol. 2015 Oct 01; 195(7):3160-70. PMID: 26311903; PMCID: PMC4575877 [Available on 10/01/16].
    23. Hilton HG, Norman PJ, Nemat-Gorgani N, Goyos A, Hollenbach JA, Henn BM, Gignoux CR, Guethlein LA, Parham P. Loss and Gain of Natural Killer Cell Receptor Function in an African Hunter-Gatherer Population. PLoS Genet. 2015 Aug; 11(8):e1005439. PMID: 26292085; PMCID: PMC4546388.
    24. Hollenbach JA, Saperstein A, Albrecht M, Vierra-Green C, Parham P, Norman PJ, Maiers M. Race, Ethnicity and Ancestry in Unrelated Transplant Matching for the National Marrow Donor Program: A Comparison of Multiple Forms of Self-Identification with Genetics. PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0135960. PMID: 26287376; PMCID: PMC4545604.
    25. Abi-Rached L, Guethlein LA, Norman PJ, Parham P. Chimpanzee susceptibility to hepatitis C virus infection correlates with presence of Pt-KIR3DS2 and Pt-KIR2DL9: paired activating and inhibitory natural killer cell receptors. Immunogenetics. 2015 Oct; 67(10):625-8. PMID: 26260270; PMCID: PMC4575274 [Available on 10/01/16].
    26. Norman PJ, Norberg SJ, Nemat-Gorgani N, Royce T, Hollenbach JA, Shults Won M, Guethlein LA, Gunderson KL, Ronaghi M, Parham P. Very long haplotype tracts characterized at high resolution from HLA homozygous cell lines. Immunogenetics. 2015 Sep; 67(9):479-85. PMID: 26198775; PMCID: PMC4540692.
    27. Raghavan M, Steinrücken M, Harris K, Schiffels S, Rasmussen S, DeGiorgio M, Albrechtsen A, Valdiosera C, Ávila-Arcos MC, Malaspinas AS, Eriksson A, Moltke I, Metspalu M, Homburger JR, Wall J, Cornejo OE, Moreno-Mayar JV, Korneliussen TS, Pierre T, Rasmussen M, Campos PF, de Barros Damgaard P, Allentoft ME, Lindo J, Metspalu E, Rodríguez-Varela R, Mansilla J, Henrickson C, Seguin-Orlando A, Malmström H, Stafford T, Shringarpure SS, Moreno-Estrada A, Karmin M, Tambets K, Bergström A, Xue Y, Warmuth V, Friend AD, Singarayer J, Valdes P, Balloux F, Leboreiro I, Vera JL, Rangel-Villalobos H, Pettener D, Luiselli D, Davis LG, Heyer E, Zollikofer CPE, Ponce de León MS, Smith CI, Grimes V, Pike KA, Deal M, Fuller BT, Arriaza B, Standen V, Luz MF, Ricaut F, Guidon N, Osipova L, Voevoda MI, Posukh OL, Balanovsky O, Lavryashina M, Bogunov Y, Khusnutdinova E, Gubina M, Balanovska E, Fedorova S, Litvinov S, Malyarchuk B, Derenko M, Mosher MJ, Archer D, Cybulski J, Petzelt B, Mitchell J, Worl R, Norman PJ, Parham P, Kemp BM, Kivisild T, Tyler-Smith C, Sandhu MS, Crawford M, Villems R, Smith DG, Waters MR, Goebel T, Johnson JR, Malhi RS, Jakobsson M, Meltzer DJ, Manica A, Durbin R, Bustamante CD, Song YS, Nielsen R, Willerslev E. POPULATION GENETICS. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans. Science. 2015 Aug 21; 349(6250):aab3884. PMID: 26198033; PMCID: PMC4733658.
    28. Hilton HG, Moesta AK, Guethlein LA, Blokhuis J, Parham P, Norman PJ. The production of KIR-Fc fusion proteins and their use in a multiplex HLA class I binding assay. J Immunol Methods. 2015 Oct; 425:79-87. PMID: 26096968.
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    29. Wroblewski EE, Norman PJ, Guethlein LA, Rudicell RS, Ramirez MA, Li Y, Hahn BH, Pusey AE, Parham P. Signature Patterns of MHC Diversity in Three Gombe Communities of Wild Chimpanzees Reflect Fitness in Reproduction and Immune Defense against SIVcpz. PLoS Biol. 2015 May; 13(5):e1002144. PMID: 26020813.
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    30. Nakimuli A, Chazara O, Hiby SE, Farrell L, Tukwasibwe S, Jayaraman J, Traherne JA, Trowsdale J, Colucci F, Lougee E, Vaughan RW, Elliott AM, Byamugisha J, Kaleebu P, Mirembe F, Nemat-Gorgani N, Parham P, Norman PJ, Moffett A. A KIR B centromeric region present in Africans but not Europeans protects pregnant women from pre-eclampsia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jan 20; 112(3):845-50. PMID: 25561558.
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    31. Sanderson ND, Norman PJ, Guethlein LA, Ellis SA, Williams C, Breen M, Park SD, Magee DA, Babrzadeh F, Warry A, Watson M, Bradley DG, MacHugh DE, Parham P, Hammond JA. Definition of the cattle killer cell Ig-like receptor gene family: comparison with aurochs and human counterparts. J Immunol. 2014 Dec 15; 193(12):6016-30. PMID: 25398326; PMCID: PMC4258407.
    32. Nemat-Gorgani N, Edinur HA, Hollenbach JA, Traherne JA, Dunn PP, Chambers GK, Parham P, Norman PJ. KIR diversity in Maori and Polynesians: populations in which HLA-B is not a significant KIR ligand. Immunogenetics. 2014 Nov; 66(11):597-611. PMID: 25139336; PMCID: PMC4198482.
    33. Dawes P, Fortnum H, Moore DR, Emsley R, Norman P, Cruickshanks K, Davis A, Edmondson-Jones M, McCormack A, Lutman M, Munro K. Hearing in middle age: a population snapshot of 40- to 69-year olds in the United Kingdom. Ear Hear. 2014 May-Jun; 35(3):e44-51. PMID: 24518430.
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    34. Kidd JM, Sharpton TJ, Bobo D, Norman PJ, Martin AR, Carpenter ML, Sikora M, Gignoux CR, Nemat-Gorgani N, Adams A, Guadalupe M, Guo X, Feng Q, Li Y, Liu X, Parham P, Hoal EG, Feldman MW, Pollard KS, Wall JD, Bustamante CD, Henn BM. Exome capture from saliva produces high quality genomic and metagenomic data. BMC Genomics. 2014 Apr 04; 15:262. PMID: 24708091.
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    35. Blakey K, Feltbower RG, Parslow RC, James PW, Gómez Pozo B, Stiller C, Vincent TJ, Norman P, McKinney PA, Murphy MF, Craft AW, McNally RJ. Is fluoride a risk factor for bone cancer? Small area analysis of osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma diagnosed among 0-49-year-olds in Great Britain, 1980-2005. Int J Epidemiol. 2014 Feb; 43(1):224-34. PMID: 24425828; PMCID: PMC3937980.
    36. Moreno-Estrada A, Gravel S, Zakharia F, McCauley JL, Byrnes JK, Gignoux CR, Ortiz-Tello PA, Martínez RJ, Hedges DJ, Morris RW, Eng C, Sandoval K, Acevedo-Acevedo S, Norman PJ, Layrisse Z, Parham P, Martínez-Cruzado JC, Burchard EG, Cuccaro ML, Martin ER, Bustamante CD. Reconstructing the population genetic history of the Caribbean. PLoS Genet. 2013 Nov; 9(11):e1003925. PMID: 24244192; PMCID: PMC3828151.
    37. Norman PJ, Hollenbach JA, Nemat-Gorgani N, Guethlein LA, Hilton HG, Pando MJ, Koram KA, Riley EM, Abi-Rached L, Parham P. Co-evolution of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands with killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) in a genetically diverse population of sub-Saharan Africans. PLoS Genet. 2013 Oct; 9(10):e1003938. PMID: 24204327; PMCID: PMC3814319.
    38. Horowitz A, Strauss-Albee DM, Leipold M, Kubo J, Nemat-Gorgani N, Dogan OC, Dekker CL, Mackey S, Maecker H, Swan GE, Davis MM, Norman PJ, Guethlein LA, Desai M, Parham P, Blish CA. Genetic and environmental determinants of human NK cell diversity revealed by mass cytometry. Sci Transl Med. 2013 Oct 23; 5(208):208ra145. PMID: 24154599.
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    39. Hammond JA, Guethlein LA, Norman PJ, Parham P. Natural selection on marine carnivores elaborated a diverse family of classical MHC class I genes exhibiting haplotypic gene content variation and allelic polymorphism. Immunogenetics. 2012 Dec; 64(12):915-33. PMID: 23001684; PMCID: PMC3518486.
    40. Hilton HG, Vago L, Older Aguilar AM, Moesta AK, Graef T, Abi-Rached L, Norman PJ, Guethlein LA, Fleischhauer K, Parham P. Mutation at positively selected positions in the binding site for HLA-C shows that KIR2DL1 is a more refined but less adaptable NK cell receptor than KIR2DL3. J Immunol. 2012 Aug 01; 189(3):1418-30. PMID: 22772445; PMCID: PMC3439511.
    41. Parham P, Norman PJ, Abi-Rached L, Guethlein LA. Human-specific evolution of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor recognition of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2012 Mar 19; 367(1590):800-11. PMID: 22312047; PMCID: PMC3267113.
    42. Parham P, Norman PJ, Abi-Rached L, Hilton HG, Guethlein LA. Review: Immunogenetics of human placentation. Placenta. 2012 Feb; 33 Suppl:S71-80. PMID: 22177321; PMCID: PMC3677947.
    43. Abi-Rached L, Jobin MJ, Kulkarni S, McWhinnie A, Dalva K, Gragert L, Babrzadeh F, Gharizadeh B, Luo M, Plummer FA, Kimani J, Carrington M, Middleton D, Rajalingam R, Beksac M, Marsh SG, Maiers M, Guethlein LA, Tavoularis S, Little AM, Green RE, Norman PJ, Parham P. The shaping of modern human immune systems by multiregional admixture with archaic humans. Science. 2011 Oct 07; 334(6052):89-94. PMID: 21868630; PMCID: PMC3677943.
    44. Parham P, Norman PJ, Abi-Rached L, Guethlein LA. Variable NK cell receptors exemplified by human KIR3DL1/S1. J Immunol. 2011 Jul 01; 187(1):11-9. PMID: 21690332; PMCID: PMC3223120.
    45. Henn BM, Gignoux CR, Jobin M, Granka JM, Macpherson JM, Kidd JM, Rodríguez-Botigué L, Ramachandran S, Hon L, Brisbin A, Lin AA, Underhill PA, Comas D, Kidd KK, Norman PJ, Parham P, Bustamante CD, Mountain JL, Feldman MW. Hunter-gatherer genomic diversity suggests a southern African origin for modern humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Mar 29; 108(13):5154-62. PMID: 21383195; PMCID: PMC3069156.
    46. Gleimer M, Wahl AR, Hickman HD, Abi-Rached L, Norman PJ, Guethlein LA, Hammond JA, Draghi M, Adams EJ, Juo S, Jalili R, Gharizadeh B, Ronaghi M, Garcia KC, Hildebrand WH, Parham P. Although divergent in residues of the peptide binding site, conserved chimpanzee Patr-AL and polymorphic human HLA-A*02 have overlapping peptide-binding repertoires. J Immunol. 2011 Feb 01; 186(3):1575-88. PMID: 21209280; PMCID: PMC3124313.
    47. Pyo CW, Guethlein LA, Vu Q, Wang R, Abi-Rached L, Norman PJ, Marsh SG, Miller JS, Parham P, Geraghty DE. Different patterns of evolution in the centromeric and telomeric regions of group A and B haplotypes of the human killer cell Ig-like receptor locus. PLoS One. 2010 Dec 29; 5(12):e15115. PMID: 21206914; PMCID: PMC3012066.
    48. Parham P, Abi-Rached L, Matevosyan L, Moesta AK, Norman PJ, Older Aguilar AM, Guethlein LA. Primate-specific regulation of natural killer cells. J Med Primatol. 2010 Aug; 39(4):194-212. PMID: 20618586; PMCID: PMC2921375.
    49. Graef T, Moesta AK, Norman PJ, Abi-Rached L, Vago L, Older Aguilar AM, Gleimer M, Hammond JA, Guethlein LA, Bushnell DA, Robinson PJ, Parham P. KIR2DS4 is a product of gene conversion with KIR3DL2 that introduced specificity for HLA-A*11 while diminishing avidity for HLA-C. J Exp Med. 2009 Oct 26; 206(11):2557-72. PMID: 19858347; PMCID: PMC2768862.
    50. Gendzekhadze K, Norman PJ, Abi-Rached L, Graef T, Moesta AK, Layrisse Z, Parham P. Co-evolution of KIR2DL3 with HLA-C in a human population retaining minimal essential diversity of KIR and HLA class I ligands. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Nov 03; 106(44):18692-7. PMID: 19837691; PMCID: PMC2774017.
    51. Sharma D, Bastard K, Guethlein LA, Norman PJ, Yawata N, Yawata M, Pando M, Thananchai H, Dong T, Rowland-Jones S, Brodsky FM, Parham P. Dimorphic motifs in D0 and D1+D2 domains of killer cell Ig-like receptor 3DL1 combine to form receptors with high, moderate, and no avidity for the complex of a peptide derived from HIV and HLA-A*2402. J Immunol. 2009 Oct 01; 183(7):4569-82. PMID: 19752231; PMCID: PMC2827337.
    52. Korbel DS, Norman PJ, Newman KC, Horowitz A, Gendzekhadze K, Parham P, Riley EM. Killer Ig-like receptor (KIR) genotype predicts the capacity of human KIR-positive CD56dim NK cells to respond to pathogen-associated signals. J Immunol. 2009 May 15; 182(10):6426-34. PMID: 19414796; PMCID: PMC2854670.
    53. Norman PJ, Abi-Rached L, Gendzekhadze K, Hammond JA, Moesta AK, Sharma D, Graef T, McQueen KL, Guethlein LA, Carrington CV, Chandanayingyong D, Chang YH, Crespí C, Saruhan-Direskeneli G, Hameed K, Kamkamidze G, Koram KA, Layrisse Z, Matamoros N, Milà J, Park MH, Pitchappan RM, Ramdath DD, Shiau MY, Stephens HA, Struik S, Tyan D, Verity DH, Vaughan RW, Davis RW, Fraser PA, Riley EM, Ronaghi M, Parham P. Meiotic recombination generates rich diversity in NK cell receptor genes, alleles, and haplotypes. Genome Res. 2009 May; 19(5):757-69. PMID: 19411600; PMCID: PMC2675964.
    54. Moesta AK, Abi-Rached L, Norman PJ, Parham P. Chimpanzees use more varied receptors and ligands than humans for inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptor recognition of the MHC-C1 and MHC-C2 epitopes. J Immunol. 2009 Mar 15; 182(6):3628-37. PMID: 19265141; PMCID: PMC2854666.
    55. Sanjanwala B, Draghi M, Norman PJ, Guethlein LA, Parham P. Polymorphic sites away from the Bw4 epitope that affect interaction of Bw4+ HLA-B with KIR3DL1. J Immunol. 2008 Nov 01; 181(9):6293-300. PMID: 18941220; PMCID: PMC2634290.
    56. Thomas R, Yamada E, Alter G, Martin MP, Bashirova AA, Norman PJ, Altfeld M, Parham P, Anderson SK, McVicar DW, Carrington M. Novel KIR3DL1 alleles and their expression levels on NK cells: convergent evolution of KIR3DL1 phenotype variation? J Immunol. 2008 May 15; 180(10):6743-50. PMID: 18453594.
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    57. Moesta AK, Norman PJ, Yawata M, Yawata N, Gleimer M, Parham P. Synergistic polymorphism at two positions distal to the ligand-binding site makes KIR2DL2 a stronger receptor for HLA-C than KIR2DL3. J Immunol. 2008 Mar 15; 180(6):3969-79. PMID: 18322206.
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    58. Norman PJ, Abi-Rached L, Gendzekhadze K, Korbel D, Gleimer M, Rowley D, Bruno D, Carrington CV, Chandanayingyong D, Chang YH, Crespí C, Saruhan-Direskeneli G, Fraser PA, Hameed K, Kamkamidze G, Koram KA, Layrisse Z, Matamoros N, Milà J, Park MH, Pitchappan RM, Ramdath DD, Shiau MY, Stephens HA, Struik S, Verity DH, Vaughan RW, Tyan D, Davis RW, Riley EM, Ronaghi M, Parham P. Unusual selection on the KIR3DL1/S1 natural killer cell receptor in Africans. Nat Genet. 2007 Sep; 39(9):1092-9. PMID: 17694054.
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    59. Abi-Rached L, Dorighi K, Norman PJ, Yawata M, Parham P. Episodes of natural selection shaped the interactions of IgA-Fc with FcalphaRI and bacterial decoy proteins. J Immunol. 2007 Jun 15; 178(12):7943-54. PMID: 17548632.
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    60. Steer SE, Williams FM, Kato B, Gardner JP, Norman PJ, Hall MA, Kimura M, Vaughan R, Aviv A, Spector TD. Reduced telomere length in rheumatoid arthritis is independent of disease activity and duration. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007 Apr; 66(4):476-80. PMID: 17114192; PMCID: PMC1856061.
    61. Gendzekhadze K, Norman PJ, Abi-Rached L, Layrisse Z, Parham P. High KIR diversity in Amerindians is maintained using few gene-content haplotypes. Immunogenetics. 2006 Jun; 58(5-6):474-80. PMID: 16738943.
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    62. Norman PJ, Parham P. Complex interactions: the immunogenetics of human leukocyte antigen and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors. Semin Hematol. 2005 Apr; 42(2):65-75. PMID: 15846572.
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    63. Morsy MA, Norman PJ, Mitry R, Rela M, Heaton ND, Vaughan RW. Isolation, purification and flow cytometric analysis of human intrahepatic lymphocytes using an improved technique. Lab Invest. 2005 Feb; 85(2):285-96. PMID: 15640833.
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    64. Norman PJ, Cook MA, Carey BS, Carrington CV, Verity DH, Hameed K, Ramdath DD, Chandanayingyong D, Leppert M, Stephens HA, Vaughan RW. SNP haplotypes and allele frequencies show evidence for disruptive and balancing selection in the human leukocyte receptor complex. Immunogenetics. 2004 Jul; 56(4):225-37. PMID: 15185041.
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    65. Vampa ML, Norman PJ, Burnapp L, Vaughan RW, Sacks SH, Wong W. Natural killer-cell activity after human renal transplantation in relation to killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and human leukocyte antigen mismatch. Transplantation. 2003 Oct 27; 76(8):1220-8. PMID: 14578757.
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    66. Carrington CV, Norman PJ, Vaughan RW, Kondeatis E, Ramdath DD, Hameed K, Stephens HA. Analysis of Fc gamma receptor II (CD32) polymorphism in populations of African and South Asian ancestry reveals east-west geographic gradients of allele frequencies. Eur J Immunogenet. 2003 Oct; 30(5):375-9. PMID: 14641546.
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    67. Norman PJ, Carey BS, Stephens HAF, Vaughan RW. DNA sequence variation and molecular genotyping of natural killer leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor, LILRA3. Immunogenetics. 2003 Jun; 55(3):165-171. PMID: 12750859.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Cook MA, Norman PJ, Curran MD, Maxwell LD, Briggs DC, Middleton D, Vaughan RW. A multi-laboratory characterization of the KIR genotypes of 10th International Histocompatibility Workshop cell lines. Hum Immunol. 2003 May; 64(5):567-71. PMID: 12691708.
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    69. Carrington CV, Kondeatis E, Ramdath DD, Norman PJ, Vaughan RW, Stephens HA. A comparison of HLA-DR and -DQ allele and haplotype frequencies in Trinidadian populations of African, South Asian, and mixed ancestry. Hum Immunol. 2002 Nov; 63(11):1045-54. PMID: 12392858.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Moodie SJ, Norman PJ, King AL, Fraser JS, Curtis D, Ellis HJ, Vaughan RW, Ciclitira PJ. Analysis of candidate genes on chromosome 19 in coeliac disease: an association study of the KIR and LILR gene clusters. Eur J Immunogenet. 2002 Aug; 29(4):287-91. PMID: 12121272.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Hall MA, Norman PJ, Thiel B, Tiwari H, Peiffer A, Vaughan RW, Prescott S, Leppert M, Schork NJ, Lanchbury JS. Quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 18 control variation in levels of T and B lymphocyte subpopulations. Am J Hum Genet. 2002 May; 70(5):1172-82. PMID: 11951176; PMCID: PMC447593.
    72. Norman PJ, Carrington CV, Byng M, Maxwell LD, Curran MD, Stephens HA, Chandanayingyong D, Verity DH, Hameed K, Ramdath DD, Vaughan RW. Natural killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) locus profiles in African and South Asian populations. Genes Immun. 2002 Apr; 3(2):86-95. PMID: 11960306.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Norman PJ, Stephens HA, Verity DH, Chandanayingyong D, Vaughan RW. Distribution of natural killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor sequences in three ethnic groups. Immunogenetics. 2001; 52(3-4):195-205. PMID: 11220621.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Norman PJ, Harmer AW, Koffman CG, Vaughan RW. Presence of IgG HLA antibodies in patients with long-surviving renal allografts. Transplant Proc. 1995 Feb; 27(1):999-1000. PMID: 7879260.
      View in: PubMed
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