Colorado PROFILES, The Colorado Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (CCTSI)
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Nanette F Santoro

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of Colorado Denver - Anschutz Medical Campus
DepartmentSOM-Obstetrics & Gynecology
Phone3037242041
    Other Positions
    TitleChair
    InstitutionUniversity of Colorado Denver - Anschutz Medical Campus
    DepartmentSOM-Obstetrics & Gynecology


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse awards and honors
    1975Magna cum laude, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
    1993Excellent in Teaching Award, UMDNJ Foundation
    1995Alpha Omega Alpha (Faculty), UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School
    1997Best Doctors, Good Housekeeping Magazine
    1999 - 2014Best Doctors, Castle Connolly
    2001Best Doctors, New York Magazine
    2005Research in Perimenopause Award, North American Menopause Society
    2006Mentor of the Year--Clinical Research Training Program, Albert Einstein College of Medicine
    2008 - 2014Best Doctor, Best Doctors in America
    2010 - 2014Secretary-Treasurer, American Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Foundation
    2007 - 2014Chair, Reproductive Medicine Network Steering Committee, National Institutes of Health
    2010 - 2014Council Member, American Gynecologic and Obstetrical Society
    2011 - 2014Council, CUCOG--Council of University Chairs of Ob/Gyn
    2014Board of Directors, North American Menopause Society
    2014Board of Directors, Colorado Chapter of the American College of Ob/Gyn

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    My research focuses on the pathophysiology of several reproductive conditions.

    The first of these is premature, natural and medically/surgically induced menopause in women and its treatment. I have been an investigator and past PI of the New Jersey site for the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) a multi center cohort study of the menopausal transition and beyond. I have been a co-investigator for the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial at both New Jersey and Albert Einstein, and am a past site PI for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS).

    I chair the Steering Committee for the Reproductive Medicine Network, a multi center NIH funded clinical trials network that performs cutting edge clinical studies in the field of reproduction and has published a number of high-impact, practice-changing manuscripts in recent years.

    Last but not least, my laboratory is currently focused on the reproductive hormonal dysfunction that occurs in obesity and how it might be related to suboptimal fertility and pregnancy outcomes.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse research activities and funding
    K08HD000923     (SANTORO, NANETTE F.)Aug 1, 1990 - Jul 31, 1993
    NIH/NICHD
    REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY OF OVARIAN FAILURE
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01AG012222     (SANTORO, NANETTE F.)Aug 15, 1994 - Mar 31, 2005
    NIH/NIA
    REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY OF OVARIAN FAILURE
    Role: Principal Investigator

    U01AG012535     (DERBY, CAROL A)Sep 30, 1994 - Jun 30, 2019
    NIH/NIA
    Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN): New Jersey
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    K12HD001271     (SANTORO, NANETTE F.)Jul 30, 1999 - Jun 30, 2020
    NIH/NICHD
    Colorado Women's Reproductive Health Research Career Development Center
    Role: Principal Investigator

    K24HD041978     (SANTORO, NANETTE F.)Apr 5, 2002 - Mar 31, 2013
    NIH/NICHD
    Establishment of Regular Ovulation in Normal Menarche
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R21DK069349     (SANTORO, NANETTE F.)Sep 30, 2004 - Aug 31, 2008
    NIH/NIDDK
    Reproductive Hormonal Effects of Weight Loss in Women
    Role: Principal Investigator

    K12HD057022     (REGENSTEINER, JUDITH G)Sep 24, 2007 - Jul 31, 2017
    NIH/NICHD
    The Colorado Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health Progra
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    R25HD075737     (SANTORO, NANETTE F.)Apr 15, 2013 - Mar 31, 2018
    NIH/NICHD
    The Clinical Research/Reproductive Scientist Training Program (CREST)
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01HD087314     (SANTORO, NANETTE F.)May 4, 2016 - Feb 29, 2020
    NIH/NICHD
    Reprometabolic Syndrome Mediates Subfertility in Obesity
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Santoro N, Crawford SL, El Khoudary SR, Allshouse AA, Burnett-Bowie SA, Finkelstein J, Derby C, Matthews K, Kravitz HM, Harlow SD, Greendale GA, Gold EB, Kazlauskaite R, McConnell D, Neal-Perry G, Pavlovic J, Randolph J, Weiss G, Chen HY, Lasley B. Menstrual Cycle Hormone Changes in Women Traversing the Menopause: Study Of Women's Health Across the Nation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017 Mar 22. PMID: 28368525.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Santoro N, Allshouse A, Neal-Perry G, Pal L, Lobo RA, Naftolin F, Black DM, Brinton EA, Budoff MJ, Cedars MI, Dowling NM, Dunn M, Gleason CE, Hodis HN, Isaac B, Magnani M, Manson JE, Miller VM, Taylor HS, Wharton W, Wolff E, Zepeda V, Harman SM. Longitudinal changes in menopausal symptoms comparing women randomized to low-dose oral conjugated estrogens or transdermal estradiol plus micronized progesterone versus placebo: the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Menopause. 2017 Mar; 24(3):238-246. PMID: 27779568.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Chosich J, Bradford AP, Allshouse AA, Reusch JE, Santoro N, Schauer IE. Acute recapitulation of the hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia characteristic of metabolic syndrome suppresses gonadotropins. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2017 Mar; 25(3):553-560. PMID: 28158916.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Paramsothy P, Harlow SD, Nan B, Greendale GA, Santoro N, Crawford SL, Gold EB, Tepper PG, Randolph JF. Duration of the menopausal transition is longer in women with young age at onset: the multiethnic Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Menopause. 2017 Feb; 24(2):142-149. PMID: 27676632.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Thurston RC, Chang Y, von Känel R, Barinas-Mitchell E, Jennings JR, Hall MH, Santoro N, Buysse DJ, Matthews KA. Sleep Characteristics and Carotid Atherosclerosis Among Midlife Women. Sleep. 2017 Feb 01; 40(2). PMID: 28364498.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Santoro N. Feed a hot flash, starve a hot flash? Menopause. 2017 Jan; 24(1):1-2. PMID: 27801702.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Thurston RC, Chang Y, von Känel R, Barinas-Mitchell E, Jennings JR, Hall MH, Santoro N, Buysse DJ, Matthews KA. Sleep Characteristics and Carotid Atherosclerosis among Midlife Women. Sleep. 2016 Nov 14. PMID: 27855752.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Thurston RC, Chang Y, Barinas-Mitchell E, Jennings JR, Landsittel DP, Santoro N, von Känel R, Matthews KA. Menopausal Hot Flashes and Carotid Intima Media Thickness Among Midlife Women. Stroke. 2016 Dec; 47(12):2910-2915. PMID: 27834746.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Trussell JC, Craig LB, Gracia C, Huang H, Alvero R, Casson P, Christman G, Coutifaris C, Diamond M, Jin S, Legro RS, Robinson RD, Schlaff WD, Zhang H. Fertility-related quality of life from two RCT cohorts with infertility: unexplained infertility and polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod. 2016 Oct; 31(10):2268-79. PMID: 27402910.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Owen CM, Pal L, Mumford SL, Freeman R, Isaac B, McDonald L, Santoro N, Taylor HS, Wolff EF. Effects of hormones on skin wrinkles and rigidity vary by race/ethnicity: four-year follow-up from the ancillary skin study of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Fertil Steril. 2016 Oct; 106(5):1170-1175.e3. PMID: 27393520.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Kuokkanen S, Polotsky AJ, Chosich J, Bradford AP, Jasinska A, Phang T, Santoro N, Appt SE. Corpus luteum as a novel target of weight changes that contribute to impaired female reproductive physiology and function. Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2016 Aug; 62(4):227-42. PMID: 27187064.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Santoro N, Braunstein GD, Butts CL, Martin KA, McDermott M, Pinkerton JV. Compounded Bioidentical Hormones in Endocrinology Practice: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Apr; 101(4):1318-43. PMID: 27032319.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Hansen KR, He AL, Styer AK, Wild RA, Butts S, Engmann L, Diamond MP, Legro RS, Coutifaris C, Alvero R, Robinson RD, Casson P, Christman GM, Huang H, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H. Predictors of pregnancy and live-birth in couples with unexplained infertility after ovarian stimulation-intrauterine insemination. Fertil Steril. 2016 Jun; 105(6):1575-1583.e2. PMID: 26949110.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Worsley R, Santoro N, Miller KK, Parish SJ, Davis SR. Hormones and Female Sexual Dysfunction: Beyond Estrogens and Androgens--Findings from the Fourth International Consultation on Sexual Medicine. J Sex Med. 2016 Mar; 13(3):283-90. PMID: 26944460.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Santoro N, Worsley R, Miller KK, Parish SJ, Davis SR. Role of Estrogens and Estrogen-Like Compounds in Female Sexual Function and Dysfunction. J Sex Med. 2016 Mar; 13(3):305-16. PMID: 26944462.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Davis SR, Worsley R, Miller KK, Parish SJ, Santoro N. Androgens and Female Sexual Function and Dysfunction--Findings From the Fourth International Consultation of Sexual Medicine. J Sex Med. 2016 Feb; 13(2):168-78. PMID: 26953831.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Santoro N. Perimenopause: From Research to Practice. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2016 Apr; 25(4):332-9. PMID: 26653408.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Santoro N, Teal S, Gavito C, Cano S, Chosich J, Sheeder J. Use of a levonorgestrel-containing intrauterine system with supplemental estrogen improves symptoms in perimenopausal women: a pilot study. Menopause. 2015 Dec; 22(12):1301-7. PMID: 26575111.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Grindler NM, Santoro NF. Menopause and exercise. Menopause. 2015 Dec; 22(12):1351-8. PMID: 26382311.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Lynch AM, Wagner BD, Deterding RR, Giclas PC, Gibbs RS, Janoff EN, Holers VM, Santoro NF. The relationship of circulating proteins in early pregnancy with preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Apr; 214(4):517.e1-8. PMID: 26576488.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Al-Safi ZA, Liu H, Carlson NE, Chosich J, Lesh J, Robledo C, Bradford AP, Gee NA, Phang T, Santoro N, Kohrt W, Polotsky AJ. Estradiol Priming Improves Gonadotrope Sensitivity and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in Obese Women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Nov; 100(11):4372-81. PMID: 26425884.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Steiner AZ, Diamond MP, Legro RS, Schlaff WD, Barnhart KT, Casson PR, Christman GM, Alvero R, Hansen KR, Geisler WM, Thomas T, Santoro N, Zhang H, Eisenberg E. Chlamydia trachomatis immunoglobulin G3 seropositivity is a predictor of reproductive outcomes in infertile women with patent fallopian tubes. Fertil Steril. 2015 Dec; 104(6):1522-6. PMID: 26413816.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Diamond MP, Legro RS, Coutifaris C, Alvero R, Robinson RD, Casson P, Christman GM, Ager J, Huang H, Hansen KR, Baker V, Usadi R, Seungdamrong A, Bates GW, Rosen RM, Haisenleder D, Krawetz SA, Barnhart K, Trussell JC, Ohl D, Jin Y, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H. Letrozole, Gonadotropin, or Clomiphene for Unexplained Infertility. N Engl J Med. 2015 Sep 24; 373(13):1230-40. PMID: 26398071.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Usadi RS, Diamond MP, Legro RS, Schlaff WD, Hansen KR, Casson P, Christman G, Wright Bates G, Baker V, Seungdamrong A, Rosen MP, Lucidi S, Thomas T, Huang H, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H, Alvero R. Recruitment strategies in two reproductive medicine network infertility trials. Contemp Clin Trials. 2015 Nov; 45(Pt B):196-200. PMID: 26386293.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Kuang H, Jin S, Thomas T, Engmann L, Hansen KR, Coutifaris C, Casson P, Christman G, Alvero R, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Diamond MP, Legro RS, Zhang H. Predictors of participant retention in infertility treatment trials. Fertil Steril. 2015 Nov; 104(5):1236-43.e1-2. PMID: 26354094.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Santoro N, Epperson CN, Mathews SB. Menopausal Symptoms and Their Management. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2015 Sep; 44(3):497-515. PMID: 26316239.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Pinkerton JV, Santoro N. Compounded bioidentical hormone therapy: identifying use trends and knowledge gaps among US women. Menopause. 2015 Sep; 22(9):926-36. PMID: 25692877.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Santoro N, Pal L. Menopause and Perimenopause. Preface. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2015 Sep; 44(3):xvii-xviii. PMID: 26316251.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Kuang H, Jin S, Hansen KR, Diamond MP, Coutifaris C, Casson P, Christman G, Alvero R, Huang H, Bates GW, Usadi R, Lucidi S, Baker V, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Legro RS, Zhang H. Identification and replication of prediction models for ovulation, pregnancy and live birth in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod. 2015 Sep; 30(9):2222-33. PMID: 26202922.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Gleason CE, Dowling NM, Wharton W, Manson JE, Miller VM, Atwood CS, Brinton EA, Cedars MI, Lobo RA, Merriam GR, Neal-Perry G, Santoro NF, Taylor HS, Black DM, Budoff MJ, Hodis HN, Naftolin F, Harman SM, Asthana S. Effects of Hormone Therapy on Cognition and Mood in Recently Postmenopausal Women: Findings from the Randomized, Controlled KEEPS-Cognitive and Affective Study. PLoS Med. 2015 Jun; 12(6):e1001833; discussion e1001833. PMID: 26035291.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Davis SR, Lambrinoudaki I, Lumsden M, Mishra GD, Pal L, Rees M, Santoro N, Simoncini T. Menopause. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2015 04 23; 1:15004. PMID: 27188659.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Polotsky AJ, Allshouse AA, Casson PR, Coutifaris C, Diamond MP, Christman GM, Schlaff WD, Alvero R, Trussell JC, Krawetz SA, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H, Legro RS. Impact of Male and Female Weight, Smoking, and Intercourse Frequency on Live Birth in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Jun; 100(6):2405-12. PMID: 25856211.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Santoro N. What to do when the numbers don't add up. Fertil Steril. 2015 May; 103(5):1150. PMID: 25782620.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Allshouse AA, Polotsky A, Crawford S, Chen HY, El Khoudary SR, Santoro N. Consistent ovulation may not be enough to make women healthy when approaching menopause: an update from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Menopause. 2015 Mar; 22(3):267-74. PMID: 25714237.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Diamond MP, Legro RS, Coutifaris C, Alvero R, Robinson RD, Casson P, Christman GM, Ager J, Huang H, Hansen KR, Baker V, Usadi R, Seungdamrong A, Bates GW, Rosen RM, Haisonleder D, Krawetz SA, Barnhart K, Trussell JC, Jin Y, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H. Assessment of multiple intrauterine gestations from ovarian stimulation (AMIGOS) trial: baseline characteristics. Fertil Steril. 2015 Apr; 103(4):962-973.e4. PMID: 25707331.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Merhi Z, Polotsky AJ, Bradford AP, Buyuk E, Chosich J, Phang T, Jindal S, Santoro N. Adiposity Alters Genes Important in Inflammation and Cell Cycle Division in Human Cumulus Granulosa Cell. Reprod Sci. 2015 Oct; 22(10):1220-8. PMID: 25676576.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Allshouse AA, Semple AL, Santoro NF. Evidence for prolonged and unique amenorrhea-related symptoms in women with premature ovarian failure/primary ovarian insufficiency. Menopause. 2015 Feb; 22(2):166-74. PMID: 25003622.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Wooding KM, Hankin JA, Johnson CA, Chosich JD, Baek SW, Bradford AP, Murphy RC, Santoro N. Measurement of estradiol, estrone, and testosterone in postmenopausal human serum by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry without derivatization. Steroids. 2015 Apr; 96:89-94. PMID: 25617740.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Wierman ME, Arlt W, Basson R, Davis SR, Miller KK, Murad MH, Rosner W, Santoro N. Androgen therapy in women: a reappraisal: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Oct; 99(10):3489-510. PMID: 25279570.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Harman SM, Black DM, Naftolin F, Brinton EA, Budoff MJ, Cedars MI, Hopkins PN, Lobo RA, Manson JE, Merriam GR, Miller VM, Neal-Perry G, Santoro N, Taylor HS, Vittinghoff E, Yan M, Hodis HN. Arterial imaging outcomes and cardiovascular risk factors in recently menopausal women: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2014 Aug 19; 161(4):249-60. PMID: 25069991.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Legro RS, Brzyski RG, Diamond MP, Coutifaris C, Schlaff WD, Casson P, Christman GM, Huang H, Yan Q, Alvero R, Haisenleder DJ, Barnhart KT, Bates GW, Usadi R, Lucidi S, Baker V, Trussell JC, Krawetz SA, Snyder P, Ohl D, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H. Letrozole versus clomiphene for infertility in the polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jul 10; 371(2):119-29. PMID: 25006718.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Khan UI, Wang D, Karvonen-Gutierrez CA, Khalil N, Ylitalo KR, Santoro N. Progression from metabolically benign to at-risk obesity in perimenopausal women: a longitudinal analysis of study of women across the nation (SWAN). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Jul; 99(7):2516-25. PMID: 24846534.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Roth LW, Allshouse AA, Bradshaw-Pierce EL, Lesh J, Chosich J, Kohrt W, Bradford AP, Polotsky AJ, Santoro N. Luteal phase dynamics of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones in obese and normal weight women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2014 Sep; 81(3):418-25. PMID: 24576183.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Roth LW, Bradshaw-Pierce EL, Allshouse AA, Lesh J, Chosich J, Bradford AP, Polotsky AJ, Santoro N. Evidence of GnRH antagonist escape in obese women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 May; 99(5):E871-5. PMID: 24650013.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Al-Safi ZA, Santoro N. Menopausal hormone therapy and menopausal symptoms. Fertil Steril. 2014 Apr; 101(4):905-15. PMID: 24613533.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Maruotti N, D'Onofrio F, Neve A, Santoro N, Corrado A, Cantatore FP. Anti-TNF-a and risk of infections: the experience in one center. Panminerva Med. 2014 Mar; 56(1):31-4. PMID: 24637471.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Ross LA, Polotsky AJ, Kucherov A, Bradford AP, Lesh J, Chosich J, Gee N, Santoro N. Profound reduction of ovarian estrogen by aromatase inhibition in obese women. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014 Jun; 22(6):1464-9. PMID: 24482405.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Legro RS, Brzyski RG, Diamond MP, Coutifaris C, Schlaff WD, Alvero R, Casson P, Christman GM, Huang H, Yan Q, Haisenleder DJ, Barnhart KT, Bates GW, Usadi R, Lucidi R, Baker V, Trussell JC, Krawetz SA, Snyder P, Ohl D, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H. The Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome II study: baseline characteristics and effects of obesity from a multicenter randomized clinical trial. Fertil Steril. 2014 Jan; 101(1):258-269.e8. PMID: 24156957.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Wooding KM, Barkley RM, Hankin JA, Johnson CA, Bradford AP, Santoro N, Murphy RC. Mechanism of formation of the major estradiol product ions following collisional activation of the molecular anion in a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2013 Oct; 24(10):1451-5. PMID: 23955001.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Ogorodnikova AD, Khan UI, McGinn AP, Zeb I, Budoff MJ, Harman SM, Miller VM, Brinton EA, Manson JE, Hodis HN, Merriam GR, Cedars MI, Taylor HS, Naftolin F, Lobo RA, Santoro N, Wildman RP. Ectopic fat and adipokines in metabolically benign overweight/obese women: the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Aug; 21(8):1726-33. PMID: 23670850.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Wildman RP, Wang D, Fernandez I, Mancuso P, Santoro N, Scherer PE, Sowers MR. Associations of testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin with adipose tissue hormones in midlife women. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Mar; 21(3):629-36. PMID: 23592672.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Kundu MC, May MC, Chosich J, Bradford AP, Lasley B, Gee N, Santoro N, Appt SE, Polotsky AJ. Assessment of luteal function in the vervet monkey as a means to develop a model for obesity-related reproductive phenotype. Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2013 Apr; 59(2):74-81. PMID: 23278149.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Thurston RC, Santoro N, Matthews KA. Are vasomotor symptoms associated with sleep characteristics among symptomatic midlife women? Comparisons of self-report and objective measures. Menopause. 2012 Jul; 19(7):742-8. PMID: 22415568.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Wildman RP, Tepper PG, Crawford S, Finkelstein JS, Sutton-Tyrrell K, Thurston RC, Santoro N, Sternfeld B, Greendale GA. Do changes in sex steroid hormones precede or follow increases in body weight during the menopause transition? Results from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Sep; 97(9):E1695-704. PMID: 22723312.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Huang G, Wang D, Khan UI, Zeb I, Manson JE, Miller V, Hodis HN, Budoff MJ, Merriam GR, Harman MS, Brinton EA, Cedars MI, Su Y, Lobo RA, Naftolin F, Santoro N, Taylor HS, Wildman RP. Associations between retinol-binding protein 4 and cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis in recently postmenopausal women: cross-sectional analyses from the KEEPS study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012 May 15; 11:52. PMID: 22587616.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Diamond MP, Kruger M, Santoro N, Zhang H, Casson P, Schlaff W, Coutifaris C, Brzyski R, Christman G, Carr BR, McGovern PG, Cataldo NA, Steinkampf MP, Gosman GG, Nestler JE, Carson S, Myers EE, Eisenberg E, Legro RS. Endometrial shedding effect on conception and live birth in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Obstet Gynecol. 2012 May; 119(5):902-8. PMID: 22525900.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Polotsky AJ, Allshouse A, Crawford SL, Harlow SD, Khalil N, Santoro N, Legro RS. Relative contributions of oligomenorrhea and hyperandrogenemia to the risk of metabolic syndrome in midlife women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jun; 97(6):E868-77. PMID: 22466350.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Huang H, Hansen KR, Factor-Litvak P, Carson SA, Guzick DS, Santoro N, Diamond MP, Eisenberg E, Zhang H. Predictors of pregnancy and live birth after insemination in couples with unexplained or male-factor infertility. Fertil Steril. 2012 Apr; 97(4):959-67. PMID: 22270557.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Ouhilal S, Vuguin P, Cui L, Du XQ, Gelling RW, Reznik SE, Russell R, Parlow AF, Karpovsky C, Santoro N, Charron MJ. Hypoglycemia, hyperglucagonemia, and fetoplacental defects in glucagon receptor knockout mice: a role for glucagon action in pregnancy maintenance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Mar 01; 302(5):E522-31. PMID: 22167521.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Jindal S, Greenseid K, Berger D, Santoro N, Pal L. Impaired gremlin 1 (GREM1) expression in cumulus cells in young women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). J Assist Reprod Genet. 2012 Feb; 29(2):159-62. PMID: 22160428.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Huang G, Wang D, Zeb I, Budoff MJ, Harman SM, Miller V, Brinton EA, El Khoudary SR, Manson JE, Sowers MR, Hodis HN, Merriam GR, Cedars MI, Taylor HS, Naftolin F, Lobo RA, Santoro N, Wildman RP. Intra-thoracic fat, cardiometabolic risk factors, and subclinical cardiovascular disease in healthy, recently menopausal women screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Atherosclerosis. 2012 Mar; 221(1):198-205. PMID: 22209479.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Trussell JC, Christman GM, Ohl DA, Legro RS, Krawetz SA, Snyder PJ, Patrizio P, Polotsky AJ, Diamond MP, Casson PR, Coutifaris C, Barnhart K, Brzyski RG, Schlaff WD, Meacham R, Shin D, Thomas T, Zhang M, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang H. Recruitment challenges of a multicenter randomized controlled varicocelectomy trial. Fertil Steril. 2011 Dec; 96(6):1299-305. PMID: 22130101.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Santoro N. Update in hyper- and hypogonadotropic amenorrhea. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Nov; 96(11):3281-8. PMID: 22058375.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Casson PR, Krawetz SA, Diamond MP, Zhang H, Legro RS, Schlaff WD, Coutifaris C, Brzyski RG, Christman GM, Santoro N, Eisenberg E. Proactively establishing a biologic specimens repository for large clinical trials: an idea whose time has come. Syst Biol Reprod Med. 2011 Oct; 57(5):217-21. PMID: 21951166.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Karmon A, Hailpern SM, Neal-Perry G, Green RR, Santoro N, Polotsky AJ. Association of ethnicity with involuntary childlessness and perceived reasons for infertility: baseline data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Fertil Steril. 2011 Nov; 96(5):1200-5.e1. PMID: 21958690.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Sharma A, Cohen HW, Freeman R, Santoro N, Schoenbaum EE. Prospective evaluation of bone mineral density among middle-aged HIV-infected and uninfected women: Association between methadone use and bone loss. Maturitas. 2011 Nov; 70(3):295-301. PMID: 21944566.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Greenseid K, Jindal S, Hurwitz J, Santoro N, Pal L. Differential granulosa cell gene expression in young women with diminished ovarian reserve. Reprod Sci. 2011 Sep; 18(9):892-9. PMID: 21846690.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Santoro N, Sutton-Tyrrell K. The SWAN song: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation's recurring themes. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2011 Sep; 38(3):417-23. PMID: 21961710.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Santoro N, Randolph JF. Reproductive hormones and the menopause transition. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2011 Sep; 38(3):455-66. PMID: 21961713.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Pal L, Hailpern SM, Santoro NF, Freeman R, Barad D, Kipersztok S, Barnabei VM, Wassertheil-Smoller S. Increased incident hip fractures in postmenopausal women with moderate to severe pelvic organ prolapse. Menopause. 2011 Sep; 18(9):967-73. PMID: 21738078.
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    71. Zhang K, Zeitlian G, Adel G, Santoro NF, Pal L. Enhanced hypothalamic-pituitary sensitivity to estrogen in premenopausal women with diminished ovarian reserve compared with older perimenopausal controls. Menopause. 2011 Aug; 18(8):880-5. PMID: 21712737.
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    72. Thurston RC, Santoro N, Matthews KA. Adiposity and hot flashes in midlife women: a modifying role of age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Oct; 96(10):E1588-95. PMID: 21778220.
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    73. Buyuk E, Santoro N, Cohen HW, Charron MJ, Jindal S. Reduced neurotrophin receptor tropomyosin-related kinase A expression in human granulosa cells: a novel marker of diminishing ovarian reserve. Fertil Steril. 2011 Aug; 96(2):474-478.e4. PMID: 21645891.
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    74. Lipton LR, Santoro N, Taylor H, Kidwai N, Isaac B, Magnani M, Pal L. Assessing comprehension of clinical research. Contemp Clin Trials. 2011 Sep; 32(5):608-13. PMID: 21571097.
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    75. Lasley BL, Crawford SL, Laughlin GA, Santoro N, McConnell DS, Crandall C, Greendale GA, Polotsky AJ, Vuga M. Circulating dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in women who underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy during the menopausal transition. Menopause. 2011 May; 18(5):494-8. PMID: 21178790.
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    76. Butler L, Santoro N. The reproductive endocrinology of the menopausal transition. Steroids. 2011 Jun; 76(7):627-35. PMID: 21419147.
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    77. Kucherov A, Polotsky AJ, Menke M, Isaac B, McAvey B, Buyuk E, Bradford AP, Hickmon C, Babbs B, Berga S, Loucks T, Santoro N. Aromatase inhibition causes increased amplitude, but not frequency, of hypothalamic-pituitary output in normal women. Fertil Steril. 2011 May; 95(6):2063-6. PMID: 21353673.
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    78. Zimmerman ME, Lipton RB, Santoro N, McConnell DS, Derby CA, Katz MJ, Baigi K, Saunders-Pullman R. Endogenous estradiol is associated with verbal memory in nondemented older men. Brain Cogn. 2011 Jun; 76(1):158-65. PMID: 21354686.
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    79. Rybak EA, Szmyga MJ, Zapantis G, Rausch M, Beshay VE, Polotsky AJ, Coutifaris C, Carr BR, Santoro N, Meier UT. The nucleolar channel system reliably marks the midluteal endometrium regardless of fertility status: a fresh look at an old organelle. Fertil Steril. 2011 Mar 15; 95(4):1385-9.e1. PMID: 21067716.
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    80. Wolff E, Pal L, Altun T, Madankumar R, Freeman R, Amin H, Harman M, Santoro N, Taylor HS. Skin wrinkles and rigidity in early postmenopausal women vary by race/ethnicity: baseline characteristics of the skin ancillary study of the KEEPS trial. Fertil Steril. 2011 Feb; 95(2):658-62.e1-3. PMID: 20971461.
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    81. Relwani R, Berger D, Santoro N, Hickmon C, Nihsen M, Zapantis A, Werner M, Polotsky AJ, Jindal S. Semen parameters are unrelated to BMI but vary with SSRI use and prior urological surgery. Reprod Sci. 2011 Apr; 18(4):391-7. PMID: 20959643.
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    82. Legro RS, Schlaff WD, Diamond MP, Coutifaris C, Casson PR, Brzyski RG, Christman GM, Trussell JC, Krawetz SA, Snyder PJ, Ohl D, Carson SA, Steinkampf MP, Carr BR, McGovern PG, Cataldo NA, Gosman GG, Nestler JE, Myers ER, Santoro N, Eisenberg E, Zhang M, Zhang H. Total testosterone assays in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: precision and correlation with hirsutism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Dec; 95(12):5305-13. PMID: 20826578.
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    83. Pal L, Bevilacqua K, Santoro NF. Chronic psychosocial stressors are detrimental to ovarian reserve: a study of infertile women. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2010 Sep; 31(3):130-9. PMID: 20718584.
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    84. Zhang H, Legro RS, Zhang J, Zhang L, Chen X, Huang H, Casson PR, Schlaff WD, Diamond MP, Krawetz SA, Coutifaris C, Brzyski RG, Christman GM, Santoro N, Eisenberg E. Decision trees for identifying predictors of treatment effectiveness in clinical trials and its application to ovulation in a study of women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod. 2010 Oct; 25(10):2612-21. PMID: 20716558.
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    85. Green R, Polotsky AJ, Wildman RP, McGinn AP, Lin J, Derby C, Johnston J, Ram KT, Crandall CJ, Thurston R, Gold E, Weiss G, Santoro N. Menopausal symptoms within a Hispanic cohort: SWAN, the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Climacteric. 2010 Aug; 13(4):376-84. PMID: 20136411.
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    86. Keltz J, Zapantis A, Jindal SK, Lieman HJ, Santoro N, Polotsky AJ. Overweight men: clinical pregnancy after ART is decreased in IVF but not in ICSI cycles. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2010 Sep; 27(9-10):539-44. PMID: 20635132.
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    87. Santoro N, McGinn AP, Cohen HW, Kaskel F, Marantz PR, Mulvihill M, Schoenbaum E. In it for the long-term: defining the mentor-protégé relationship in a clinical research training program. Acad Med. 2010 Jun; 85(6):1067-72. PMID: 20505411.
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    88. Sutton-Tyrrell K, Zhao X, Santoro N, Lasley B, Sowers M, Johnston J, Mackey R, Matthews K. Reproductive hormones and obesity: 9 years of observation from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Jun 01; 171(11):1203-13. PMID: 20427327.
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    89. Green R, Santoro NF, McGinn AP, Wildman RP, Derby CA, Polotsky AJ, Weiss G. The relationship between psychosocial status, acculturation and country of origin in mid-life Hispanic women: data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Climacteric. 2010 Dec; 13(6):534-43. PMID: 20210631.
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    90. Derby CA, Wildman RP, McGinn AP, Green RR, Polotsky AJ, Ram KT, Barnhart J, Weiss G, Santoro N. Cardiovascular risk factor variation within a Hispanic cohort: SWAN, the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Ethn Dis. 2010; 20(4):396-402. PMID: 21305828.
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    91. Kuokkanen S, Chen B, Ojalvo L, Benard L, Santoro N, Pollard JW. Genomic profiling of microRNAs and messenger RNAs reveals hormonal regulation in microRNA expression in human endometrium. Biol Reprod. 2010 Apr; 82(4):791-801. PMID: 19864316.
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    92. Hurwitz JM, Jindal S, Greenseid K, Berger D, Brooks A, Santoro N, Pal L. Reproductive aging is associated with altered gene expression in human luteinized granulosa cells. Reprod Sci. 2010 Jan; 17(1):56-67. PMID: 19805551.
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    93. Santoro N, Fan M, Maslow B, Schoenbaum E. Women and HIV infection: the makings of a midlife crisis. Maturitas. 2009 Nov 20; 64(3):160-4. PMID: 19783389.
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    94. Aubuchon M, Lieman H, Stein D, Cohen HW, Isaac B, Adel G, Weitzman V, Tetrokalashvili M, Polotsky AJ, Santoro N. Metformin does not improve the reproductive or metabolic profile in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Reprod Sci. 2009 Oct; 16(10):938-46. PMID: 19692630.
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    95. Santoro N, Komi J. Prevalence and impact of vaginal symptoms among postmenopausal women. J Sex Med. 2009 Aug; 6(8):2133-42. PMID: 19493278.
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    96. Crawford S, Santoro N, Laughlin GA, Sowers MF, McConnell D, Sutton-Tyrrell K, Weiss G, Vuga M, Randolph J, Lasley B. Circulating dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations during the menopausal transition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Aug; 94(8):2945-51. PMID: 19470626.
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    97. Miller VM, Black DM, Brinton EA, Budoff MJ, Cedars MI, Hodis HN, Lobo RA, Manson JE, Merriam GR, Naftolin F, Santoro N, Taylor HS, Harman SM. Using basic science to design a clinical trial: baseline characteristics of women enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2009 Sep; 2(3):228-39. PMID: 19668346.
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    98. Rybak EA, Bevilacqua K, Veit CR, Klugman SD, Santoro N. Sibling and self ovum donation for sisters with an intermediate FMR1 mutation: what's a program to do? Fertil Steril. 2009 Jul; 92(1):394.e9-394.e12. PMID: 19410248.
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    99. Polotsky AJ, Zhu L, Santoro N, Pollard JW. Lithium chloride treatment induces epithelial cell proliferation in xenografted human endometrium. Hum Reprod. 2009 Aug; 24(8):1960-7. PMID: 19403565.
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    100. Traub ML, Van Arsdale A, Pal L, Jindal S, Santoro N. Endometrial thickness, Caucasian ethnicity, and age predict clinical pregnancy following fresh blastocyst embryo transfer: a retrospective cohort. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2009 Apr 22; 7:33. PMID: 19386129.
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    101. Green R, Santoro N. Menopausal symptoms and ethnicity: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Womens Health (Lond). 2009 Mar; 5(2):127-33. PMID: 19245351.
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    102. Torréns JI, Sutton-Tyrrell K, Zhao X, Matthews K, Brockwell S, Sowers M, Santoro N. Relative androgen excess during the menopausal transition predicts incident metabolic syndrome in midlife women: study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Menopause. 2009 Mar-Apr; 16(2):257-64. PMID: 18971793.
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    103. Polotsky AJ, Hailpern SM, Skurnick JH, Lo JC, Sternfeld B, Santoro N. Association of adolescent obesity and lifetime nulliparity--the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Fertil Steril. 2010 Apr; 93(6):2004-11. PMID: 19185860.
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    104. Pal L, Zhang K, Zeitlian G, Santoro N. Characterizing the reproductive hormone milieu in infertile women with diminished ovarian reserve. Fertil Steril. 2010 Mar 01; 93(4):1074-9. PMID: 19100532.
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    105. Fan MD, Maslow BS, Santoro N, Schoenbaum E. HIV and the menopause. Menopause Int. 2008 Dec; 14(4):163-8. PMID: 19037065.
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    106. Pal L, Bevilacqua K, Zeitlian G, Shu J, Santoro N. Implications of diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) extend well beyond reproductive concerns. Menopause. 2008 Nov-Dec; 15(6):1086-94. PMID: 18791485.
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    107. Crawford SL, Avis NE, Gold E, Johnston J, Kelsey J, Santoro N, Sowers M, Sternfeld B. Sensitivity and specificity of recalled vasomotor symptoms in a multiethnic cohort. Am J Epidemiol. 2008 Dec 15; 168(12):1452-9. PMID: 18953064.
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    108. Polotsky AJ, Daif JL, Jindal S, Lieman HJ, Santoro N, Pal L. Serum progesterone on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration predicts clinical pregnancy of sibling frozen embryos. Fertil Steril. 2009 Dec; 92(6):1880-5. PMID: 18851847.
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    109. Rochester D, Jain A, Polotsky AJ, Polotsky H, Gibbs K, Isaac B, Zeitlian G, Hickmon C, Feng S, Santoro N. Partial recovery of luteal function after bariatric surgery in obese women. Fertil Steril. 2009 Oct; 92(4):1410-5. PMID: 18829008.
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    110. Santoro N. Symptoms of menopause: hot flushes. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Sep; 51(3):539-48. PMID: 18677148.
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    111. Van Voorhis BJ, Santoro N, Harlow S, Crawford SL, Randolph J. The relationship of bleeding patterns to daily reproductive hormones in women approaching menopause. Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jul; 112(1):101-8. PMID: 18591314.
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    112. Hickey M, Saunders C, Partridge A, Santoro N, Joffe H, Stearns V. Practical clinical guidelines for assessing and managing menopausal symptoms after breast cancer. Ann Oncol. 2008 Oct; 19(10):1669-80. PMID: 18522932.
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    113. Guffanti E, Kittur N, Brodt ZN, Polotsky AJ, Kuokkanen SM, Heller DS, Young SL, Santoro N, Meier UT. Nuclear pore complex proteins mark the implantation window in human endometrium. J Cell Sci. 2008 Jun 15; 121(Pt 12):2037-45. PMID: 18505792.
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    114. Skurnick JH, Weiss G, Goldsmith LT, Santoro N, Crawford S. Longitudinal changes in hypothalamic and ovarian function in perimenopausal women with anovulatory cycles: relationship with vasomotor symptoms. Fertil Steril. 2009 Apr; 91(4):1127-34. PMID: 18499105.
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    115. Norian JM, Zeitlian G, Adel G, Freeman RG, Santoro NF, Pal L. Low serum osteoprotegerin levels in premenopausal infertile women with low bone density: an association of relevance? Fertil Steril. 2009 Feb; 91(2):542-8. PMID: 18490014.
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    116. Rieder J, Santoro N, Cohen HW, Marantz P, Coupey SM. Body shape and size and insulin resistance as early clinical predictors of hyperandrogenic anovulation in ethnic minority adolescent girls. J Adolesc Health. 2008 Aug; 43(2):115-24. PMID: 18639784.
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    117. Johnson TM, Cohen HW, Howard AA, Santoro N, Floris-Moore M, Arnsten JH, Hartel DM, Schoenbaum EE. Attribution of menopause symptoms in human immunodeficiency virus-infected or at-risk drug-using women. Menopause. 2008 May-Jun; 15(3):551-7. PMID: 18188138.
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    118. Pal L, Jindal S, Witt BR, Santoro N. Less is more: increased gonadotropin use for ovarian stimulation adversely influences clinical pregnancy and live birth after in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril. 2008 Jun; 89(6):1694-701. PMID: 18440515.
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    119. Pal L, Norian J, Zeitlian G, Bevilacqua K, Freeman R, Santoro N. Vasomotor symptoms in infertile premenopausal women: a hitherto unappreciated risk for low bone mineral density. Fertil Steril. 2008 Nov; 90(5):1626-34. PMID: 18068159.
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    120. Santoro N, Crawford SL, Lasley WL, Luborsky JL, Matthews KA, McConnell D, Randolph JF, Gold EB, Greendale GA, Korenman SG, Powell L, Sowers MF, Weiss G. Factors related to declining luteal function in women during the menopausal transition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 May; 93(5):1711-21. PMID: 18285413.
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    121. Zhang K, Pollack S, Ghods A, Dicken C, Isaac B, Adel G, Zeitlian G, Santoro N. Onset of ovulation after menarche in girls: a longitudinal study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Apr; 93(4):1186-94. PMID: 18252789.
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    122. Cedars M, Evans W, Santoro N. El fallo ova´rico prematuro. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Feb 01; 93(2):E1. PMID: 28201640.
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    123. Cedars M, Evans W, Santoro N. Premature Ovarian Failure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Feb 01; 93(2):E2. PMID: 28204497.
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    124. Ram KT, Bobby P, Hailpern SM, Lo JC, Schocken M, Skurnick J, Santoro N. Duration of lactation is associated with lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in midlife--SWAN, the study of women's health across the nation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Mar; 198(3):268.e1-6. PMID: 18191796.
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    125. Hartel D, Lo Y, Bauer C, Budner N, Howard AA, Floris-Moore M, Arnsten JH, Santoro N, Schoenbaum EE. Attitudes toward menopause in HIV-infected and at-risk women. Clin Interv Aging. 2008; 3(3):561-6. PMID: 18982926.
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    126. Pal L, Hailpern SM, Santoro NF, Freeman R, Barad D, Kipersztok S, Barnabei VM, Wassertheil-Smoller S. Association of pelvic organ prolapse and fractures in postmenopausal women: analysis of baseline data from the Women's Health Initiative Estrogen Plus Progestin trial. Menopause. 2008 Jan-Feb; 15(1):59-66. PMID: 18257143.
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    127. Pal L, Niklaus AL, Kim M, Pollack S, Santoro N. Heterogeneity in endometrial expression of aromatase in polyp-bearing uteri. Hum Reprod. 2008 Jan; 23(1):80-4. PMID: 17989068.
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    128. Santoro N, Lo Y, Moskaleva G, Arnsten JH, Floris-Moore M, Howard AA, Adel G, Zeitlian G, Schoenbaum EE. Factors affecting reproductive hormones in HIV-infected, substance-using middle-aged women. Menopause. 2007 Sep-Oct; 14(5):859-65. PMID: 17415019.
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    129. Santoro N, Brockwell S, Johnston J, Crawford SL, Gold EB, Harlow SD, Matthews KA, Sutton-Tyrrell K. Helping midlife women predict the onset of the final menses: SWAN, the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Menopause. 2007 May-Jun; 14(3 Pt 1):415-24. PMID: 17303963.
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    130. Pal L, Chu HP, Shu J, Topalli I, Santoro N, Karkanias G. In vitro evidence of glucose-induced toxicity in GnRH secreting neurons: high glucose concentrations influence GnRH secretion, impair cell viability, and induce apoptosis in the GT1-1 neuronal cell line. Fertil Steril. 2007 Oct; 88(4 Suppl):1143-9. PMID: 17466987.
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    131. Jain A, Polotsky AJ, Rochester D, Berga SL, Loucks T, Zeitlian G, Gibbs K, Polotsky HN, Feng S, Isaac B, Santoro N. Pulsatile luteinizing hormone amplitude and progesterone metabolite excretion are reduced in obese women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jul; 92(7):2468-73. PMID: 17440019.
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    132. Kittur N, Zapantis G, Aubuchon M, Santoro N, Bazett-Jones DP, Meier UT. The nucleolar channel system of human endometrium is related to endoplasmic reticulum and R-rings. Mol Biol Cell. 2007 Jun; 18(6):2296-304. PMID: 17429075.
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    133. Bowen S, Norian J, Santoro N, Pal L. Simple tools for assessment of ovarian reserve (OR): individual ovarian dimensions are reliable predictors of OR. Fertil Steril. 2007 Aug; 88(2):390-5. PMID: 17412332.
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    134. Niklaus AL, Aubuchon M, Zapantis G, Li P, Qian H, Isaac B, Kim MY, Adel G, Pollard JW, Santoro NF. Assessment of the proliferative status of epithelial cell types in the endometrium of young and menopausal transition women. Hum Reprod. 2007 Jun; 22(6):1778-88. PMID: 17371803.
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    135. Merhi ZO, Santoro N. Postmenopausal virilization after spousal use of topical androgens. Fertil Steril. 2007 Apr; 87(4):976.e13-5. PMID: 17254577.
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    136. Johnston JM, Colvin A, Johnson BD, Santoro N, Harlow SD, Bairey Merz CN, Sutton-Tyrrell K. Comparison of SWAN and WISE menopausal status classification algorithms. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2006 Dec; 15(10):1184-94. PMID: 17199459.
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    137. Wierman ME, Basson R, Davis SR, Khosla S, Miller KK, Rosner W, Santoro N. Androgen therapy in women: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Oct; 91(10):3697-710. PMID: 17018650.
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    138. Floris-Moore M, Howard AA, Lo Y, Arnsten JH, Santoro N, Schoenbaum EE. Increased serum lipids are associated with higher CD4 lymphocyte count in HIV-infected women. HIV Med. 2006 Oct; 7(7):421-30. PMID: 16925727.
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    139. Arnsten JH, Freeman R, Howard AA, Floris-Moore M, Santoro N, Schoenbaum EE. HIV infection and bone mineral density in middle-aged women. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Apr 01; 42(7):1014-20. PMID: 16511769.
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    140. Matthews KA, Santoro N, Lasley B, Chang Y, Crawford S, Pasternak RC, Sutton-Tyrrell K, Sowers M. Relation of cardiovascular risk factors in women approaching menopause to menstrual cycle characteristics and reproductive hormones in the follicular and luteal phases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 May; 91(5):1789-95. PMID: 16492698.
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    141. Manson JE, Bassuk SS, Harman SM, Brinton EA, Cedars MI, Lobo R, Merriam GR, Miller VM, Naftolin F, Santoro N. Postmenopausal hormone therapy: new questions and the case for new clinical trials. Menopause. 2006 Jan-Feb; 13(1):139-47. PMID: 16607110.
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    142. Santoro N. The menopausal transition. Am J Med. 2005 Dec 19; 118 Suppl 12B:8-13. PMID: 16414322.
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    143. Ram K, Santoro N. Does pregnancy-induced hypertension increase the risk of developing metabolic syndrome? Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Dec; 1(2):76-7. PMID: 16929373.
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    144. Santoro N, Arnsten JH, Buono D, Howard AA, Schoenbaum EE. Impact of street drug use, HIV infection, and highly active antiretroviral therapy on reproductive hormones in middle-aged women. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2005 Dec; 14(10):898-905. PMID: 16372891.
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    145. Kravitz HM, Janssen I, Santoro N, Bromberger JT, Schocken M, Everson-Rose SA, Karavolos K, Powell LH. Relationship of day-to-day reproductive hormone levels to sleep in midlife women. Arch Intern Med. 2005 Nov 14; 165(20):2370-6. PMID: 16287766.
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    146. Klein RS, Lo Y, Santoro N, Dobs AS. Androgen levels in older men who have or who are at risk of acquiring HIV infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Dec 15; 41(12):1794-803. PMID: 16288406.
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    147. Schoenbaum EE, Hartel D, Lo Y, Howard AA, Floris-Moore M, Arnsten JH, Santoro N. HIV infection, drug use, and onset of natural menopause. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Nov 15; 41(10):1517-24. PMID: 16231267.
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    148. Powell LH, Meyer P, Weiss G, Matthews KA, Santoro N, Randolph JF, Schocken M, Skurnick J, Ory MG, Sutton-Tyrrell K. Ethnic differences in past hysterectomy for benign conditions. Womens Health Issues. 2005 Jul-Aug; 15(4):179-86. PMID: 16051109.
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    149. Neal-Perry GS, Zeevalk GD, Santoro NF, Etgen AM. Attenuation of preoptic area glutamate release correlates with reduced luteinizing hormone secretion in middle-aged female rats. Endocrinology. 2005 Oct; 146(10):4331-9. PMID: 15994345.
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    150. Jain A, Santoro N. Endocrine mechanisms and management for abnormal bleeding due to perimenopausal changes. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Jun; 48(2):295-311. PMID: 15805788.
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    151. Miller SA, Santoro N, Lo Y, Howard AA, Arnsten JH, Floris-Moore M, Moskaleva G, Schoenbaum EE. Menopause symptoms in HIV-infected and drug-using women. Menopause. 2005 May-Jun; 12(3):348-56. PMID: 15879925.
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    152. Santoro N, Torrens J, Crawford S, Allsworth JE, Finkelstein JS, Gold EB, Korenman S, Lasley WL, Luborsky JL, McConnell D, Sowers MF, Weiss G. Correlates of circulating androgens in mid-life women: the study of women's health across the nation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Aug; 90(8):4836-45. PMID: 15840738.
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    153. Howard AA, Floris-Moore M, Arnsten JH, Santoro N, Fleischer N, Lo Y, Schoenbaum EE. Disorders of glucose metabolism among HIV-infected women. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 May 15; 40(10):1492-9. PMID: 15844072.
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    154. Harman SM, Brinton EA, Cedars M, Lobo R, Manson JE, Merriam GR, Miller VM, Naftolin F, Santoro N. KEEPS: The Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Climacteric. 2005 Mar; 8(1):3-12. PMID: 15804727.
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    155. Weiss G, Skurnick JH, Goldsmith LT, Santoro NF, Park SJ. Menopause and hypothalamic-pituitary sensitivity to estrogen. JAMA. 2004 Dec 22; 292(24):2991-6. PMID: 15613667.
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    156. Santoro N, Chervenak JL. The menopause transition. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2004 Dec; 33(4):627-36. PMID: 15501637.
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    157. Aubuchon M, Santoro N. Lessons learned from the WHI: HRT requires a cautious and individualized approach. Geriatrics. 2004 Nov; 59(11):22-6. PMID: 15615157.
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    158. Pal L, Kovacs P, Witt B, Jindal S, Santoro N, Barad D. Postthaw blastomere survival is predictive of the success of frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles. Fertil Steril. 2004 Oct; 82(4):821-6. PMID: 15482754.
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    159. Hurwitz JM, Santoro N. Inhibins, activins, and follistatin in the aging female and male. Semin Reprod Med. 2004 Aug; 22(3):209-17. PMID: 15319823.
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    160. Santoro N, Lasley B, McConnell D, Allsworth J, Crawford S, Gold EB, Finkelstein JS, Greendale GA, Kelsey J, Korenman S, Luborsky JL, Matthews K, Midgley R, Powell L, Sabatine J, Schocken M, Sowers MF, Weiss G. Body size and ethnicity are associated with menstrual cycle alterations in women in the early menopausal transition: The Study of Women's Health across the Nation (SWAN) Daily Hormone Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jun; 89(6):2622-31. PMID: 15181033.
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    161. Torréns JI, Skurnick J, Davidow AL, Korenman SG, Santoro N, Soto-Greene M, Lasser N, Weiss G. Ethnic differences in insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in premenopausal or early perimenopausal women without diabetes: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Diabetes Care. 2004 Feb; 27(2):354-61. PMID: 14747213.
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    162. Santoro N, Isaac B, Neal-Perry G, Adel T, Weingart L, Nussbaum A, Thakur S, Jinnai H, Khosla N, Barad D. Impaired folliculogenesis and ovulation in older reproductive aged women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Nov; 88(11):5502-9. PMID: 14602797.
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    163. Santoro N. Mechanisms of premature ovarian failure. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2003 Apr; 64(2):87-92. PMID: 12773939.
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    164. Randolph JF, Sowers M, Gold EB, Mohr BA, Luborsky J, Santoro N, McConnell DS, Finkelstein JS, Korenman SG, Matthews KA, Sternfeld B, Lasley BL. Reproductive hormones in the early menopausal transition: relationship to ethnicity, body size, and menopausal status. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Apr; 88(4):1516-22. PMID: 12679432.
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    165. Zapantis G, Santoro N. The menopausal transition: characteristics and management. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Mar; 17(1):33-52. PMID: 12763511.
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    166. Howard BV, Criqui MH, Curb JD, Rodabough R, Safford MM, Santoro N, Wilson AC, Wylie-Rosett J. Risk factor clustering in the insulin resistance syndrome and its relationship to cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal white, black, hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islander women. Metabolism. 2003 Mar; 52(3):362-71. PMID: 12647277.
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    167. Luborsky JL, Meyer P, Sowers MF, Gold EB, Santoro N. Premature menopause in a multi-ethnic population study of the menopause transition. Hum Reprod. 2003 Jan; 18(1):199-206. PMID: 12525467.
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    168. Santoro N, Crawford SL, Allsworth JE, Gold EB, Greendale GA, Korenman S, Lasley BL, McConnell D, McGaffigan P, Midgely R, Schocken M, Sowers M, Weiss G. Assessing menstrual cycles with urinary hormone assays. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Mar; 284(3):E521-30. PMID: 12441312.
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    169. Den Tonkelaar I, Broekmans FJ, De Boer EJ, Te Velde ER, Soules MR, Parrott E, Rebar R, Santoro N, Sherman S, Utian W, Woods NF. The Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop. Menopause. 2002 Nov-Dec; 9(6):463-4; author reply 464-5. PMID: 12439107.
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    170. Lasley BL, Santoro N, Randolf JF, Gold EB, Crawford S, Weiss G, McConnell DS, Sowers MF. The relationship of circulating dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, and estradiol to stages of the menopausal transition and ethnicity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Aug; 87(8):3760-7. PMID: 12161507.
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    171. Plotkin D, Miller S, Nakajima S, Peskin E, Burkman R, Richardson D, Mitchel Y, Waldstreicher J, Liu M, Shapiro D, Santoro N. Lowering low density lipoprotein cholesterol with simvastatin, a hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme a reductase inhibitor, does not affect luteal function in premenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Jul; 87(7):3155-61. PMID: 12107216.
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    172. Kovacs P, Stangel JJ, Santoro NF, Lieman H. Successful pregnancy after transient ovarian failure following treatment of symptomatic leiomyomata. Fertil Steril. 2002 Jun; 77(6):1292-5. PMID: 12057745.
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    173. Santoro N. The menopause transition: an update. Hum Reprod Update. 2002 Mar-Apr; 8(2):155-60. PMID: 12099630.
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    174. Soules MR, Sherman S, Parrott E, Rebar R, Santoro N, Utian W, Woods N. Executive summary: Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW) Park City, Utah, July, 2001. Menopause. 2001 Nov-Dec; 8(6):402-7. PMID: 21141649.
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    175. Lieman HJ, Adel TE, Forst C, von Hagen S, Santoro N. Effects of aging and estradiol supplementation on GH axis dynamics in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Aug; 86(8):3918-23. PMID: 11502833.
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    176. Orshan SA, Furniss KK, Forst C, Santoro N. The lived experience of premature ovarian failure. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2001 Mar-Apr; 30(2):202-8. PMID: 11308110.
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    177. Hearns-Stokes RM, Santoro NF, Simon JA. Surgically induced endometriosis attenuates accrual of bone mineral density in growing rats. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Feb; 184(3):331-5. PMID: 11228482.
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    178. Santoro N. Research on the mechanisms of premature ovarian failure. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2001 Jan-Feb; 8(1 Suppl Proceedings):S10-2. PMID: 11223362.
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    179. Paulson RJ, Ory SJ, Giudice LC, Schlaff WD, Santoro NF, Coddington CC. Multiple pregnancies: what action should we take? Fertil Steril. 2001 Jan; 75(1):14-5; discussion 16-7. PMID: 11163807.
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    180. Santoro N, Goldsmith LT, Heller D, Illsley N, McGovern P, Molina C, Peters S, Skurnick JH, Forst C, Weiss G. Luteal progesterone relates to histological endometrial maturation in fertile women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Nov; 85(11):4207-11. PMID: 11095455.
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    181. Minkoff H, Santoro N. Ethical considerations in the treatment of infertility in women with human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med. 2000 Jun 08; 342(23):1748-50. PMID: 10841881.
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    182. Johannes CB, Crawford SL, Woods J, Goldstein RB, Tran D, Mehrotra S, Johnson KB, Santoro N. An electronic menstrual cycle calendar: comparison of data quality with a paper version. Menopause. 2000 May-Jun; 7(3):200-8. PMID: 10810966.
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    183. Santoro N. Tiptoeing through the mine fields of "money-back guarantees". Fertil Steril. 1999 May; 71(5):971-3. PMID: 10231071.
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    184. Santoro N, Adel T, Skurnick JH. Decreased inhibin tone and increased activin A secretion characterize reproductive aging in women. Fertil Steril. 1999 Apr; 71(4):658-62. PMID: 10202875.
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    185. Luborsky JL, Shatavi S, Adamczyk P, Chiong C, Llanes B, Lafniztzegger J, Soltes B, McGovern P, Santoro N. Polycystic ovary syndrome and ovarian autoimmunity--assessment of ovarian antibodies by EIA. J Reprod Immunol. 1999 Jan; 42(1):79-84. PMID: 10098833.
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    186. Birken S, Santoro N, Maydelman Y, Kovalevskaya G, Lobo R, Freeman EW, Warren M, McMahon D, O'Connor J. Differences in urinary excretion patterns of the hLH beta core fragment in premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women. Menopause. 1999; 6(4):290-8. PMID: 10614675.
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    187. Tortoriello DV, McGovern PG, Colon JM, Loughlin J, Santoro N. Critical ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in a coasted in-vitro fertilization patient. Hum Reprod. 1998 Nov; 13(11):3005-8. PMID: 9853846.
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    188. Sachdev R, Von Hagen S, Kamnani A, Santoro N. Persistent pregnanediol glucuronide secretion after gonadotrophin suppression indicates adrenal source of progesterone in premature ovarian failure. Hum Reprod. 1998 Aug; 13(8):2061-3. PMID: 9756268.
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    189. Casson PR, Santoro N, Elkind-Hirsch K, Carson SA, Hornsby PJ, Abraham G, Buster JE. Postmenopausal dehydroepiandrosterone administration increases free insulin-like growth factor-I and decreases high-density lipoprotein: a six-month trial. Fertil Steril. 1998 Jul; 70(1):107-10. PMID: 9660430.
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    190. Mushayandebvu TI, Goldsmith LT, Von Hagen S, Santoro N, Thurston D, Weiss G. Elevated maternal serum relaxin concentrations throughout pregnancy in singleton gestations after superovulation. Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Jul; 92(1):17-20. PMID: 9649085.
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    191. Santoro N, Banwell T, Tortoriello D, Lieman H, Adel T, Skurnick J. Effects of aging and gonadal failure on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Apr; 178(4):732-41. PMID: 9579435.
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    192. Tortoriello DV, McGovern PG, Colón JM, Skurnick JH, Lipetz K, Santoro N. "Coasting" does not adversely affect cycle outcome in a subset of highly responsive in vitro fertilization patients. Fertil Steril. 1998 Mar; 69(3):454-60. PMID: 9531876.
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    193. Blake EJ, Adel T, Santoro N. Relationships between insulin-like growth hormone factor-I and estradiol in reproductive aging. Fertil Steril. 1997 Apr; 67(4):697-701. PMID: 9093197.
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    194. Katsuya T, Horiuchi M, Minami S, Koike G, Santoro NF, Hsueh AJ, Dzau VJ. Genomic organization and polymorphism of human angiotensin II type 2 receptor: no evidence for its gene mutation in two families of human premature ovarian failure syndrome. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1997 Mar 28; 127(2):221-8. PMID: 9099917.
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    195. Santoro N, Brown JR, Adel T, Skurnick JH. Characterization of reproductive hormonal dynamics in the perimenopause. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996 Apr; 81(4):1495-501. PMID: 8636357.
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    196. Mushayandebvu T, Castracane VD, Gimpel T, Adel T, Santoro N. Evidence for diminished midcycle ovarian androgen production in older reproductive aged women. Fertil Steril. 1996 Apr; 65(4):721-3. PMID: 8654628.
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    197. Mushayandebvu TI, Santoro NF, Colón JM. A case of Pendred's syndrome presenting with amenorrhea. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1996; 42(4):277-8. PMID: 8979104.
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    198. Wilshire GB, Loughlin JS, Brown JR, Adel TE, Santoro N. Diminished function of the somatotropic axis in older reproductive-aged women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995 Feb; 80(2):608-13. PMID: 7852528.
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    199. Corenthal L, Von Hagen S, Larkins D, Ibrahim J, Santoro N. Benefits of continuous physiological pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Fertil Steril. 1994 Jun; 61(6):1027-33. PMID: 8194612.
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    200. Saketos M, Sharma N, Adel T, Raghuwanshi M, Santoro N. Time-resolved immunofluorometric assay and specimen storage conditions for measuring urinary gonadotropins. Clin Chem. 1994 May; 40(5):749-53. PMID: 8174246.
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    201. Colon JM, Santoro N, Goldsmith LT, Whitcomb R, Musket D, Weiss G. Relaxin secretion into human semen independent of gonadotropin stimulation. Biol Reprod. 1994 Jan; 50(1):187-92. PMID: 8312442.
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    202. Saketos M, Sharma N, Santoro NF. Suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis in normal women by glucocorticoids. Biol Reprod. 1993 Dec; 49(6):1270-6. PMID: 8286608.
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    203. Santoro N, Elzahr D. Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy for ovulatory disorders. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Sep; 36(3):727-36. PMID: 8403619.
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    204. Santoro N, Schneyer AL, Ibrahim J, Schmidt CL. Gonadotropin and inhibin concentrations in early pregnancy in women with and without corpora lutea. Obstet Gynecol. 1992 Apr; 79(4):579-85. PMID: 1553181.
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    205. Santoro N. Efficacy and safety of intravenous pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone: Lutrepulse for injection. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Nov; 163(5 Pt 2):1759-64. PMID: 2122733.
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    206. Martin K, Santoro N, Hall J, Filicori M, Wierman M, Crowley WF. Clinical review 15: Management of ovulatory disorders with pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990 Nov; 71(5):1081A-1081G. PMID: 2229271.
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    207. Santoro N, Schmidt CL. Pregnancy after an unsuccessful oocyte donation cycle. Fertil Steril. 1990 Jan; 53(1):174-6. PMID: 2295340.
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    208. Hopkins CC, Hall JE, Santoro NF, Martin KA, Filicori M, Crowley WF. Closed intravenous administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone: safety of extended peripheral intravenous catheterization. Obstet Gynecol. 1989 Aug; 74(2):267-70. PMID: 2664612.
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    209. Santoro N, MacLaughlin DT, Bauer HH, Hargraves AA, Dichek HL, Richardson GS. In vitro protein production by the human endometrium. Biol Reprod. 1989 May; 40(5):1047-55. PMID: 2765610.
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    210. Santoro N, Butler JP, Filicori M, Crowley WF. Alterations of the hypothalamic GnRH interpulse interval sequence over the normal menstrual cycle. Am J Physiol. 1988 Nov; 255(5 Pt 1):E696-701. PMID: 3056034.
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    211. Waldstreicher J, Santoro NF, Hall JE, Filicori M, Crowley WF. Hyperfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in women with polycystic ovarian disease: indirect evidence for partial gonadotroph desensitization. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1988 Jan; 66(1):165-72. PMID: 2961784.
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    212. Crowley WF, Filicori M, Santoro N, Spratt D. Approaches to the study of GnRH in humans: implications for design of effective therapies. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1987; 519:269-86. PMID: 3129975.
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    213. MacLaughlin DT, Richardson GS, Santoro NF, Hargraves AA, Bauer HH. Analysis of proteins secreted by the human endometrium in vivo and in vitro. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1987; 230:151-65. PMID: 3454118.
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    214. Filicori M, Santoro N, Merriam GR, Crowley WF. Characterization of the physiological pattern of episodic gonadotropin secretion throughout the human menstrual cycle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 Jun; 62(6):1136-44. PMID: 3084534.
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    215. MacLaughlin DT, Santoro NF, Bauer HH, Lawrence D, Richardson GS. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of endometrial protein in human uterine fluids: qualitative and quantitative analysis. Biol Reprod. 1986 Apr; 34(3):579-85. PMID: 3697468.
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    216. Santoro N, Filicori M, Crowley WF. Hypogonadotropic disorders in men and women: diagnosis and therapy with pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Endocr Rev. 1986 Feb; 7(1):11-23. PMID: 3082615.
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    217. Santoro N, Wierman ME, Filicori M, Waldstreicher J, Crowley WF. Intravenous administration of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone in hypothalamic amenorrhea: effects of dosage. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 Jan; 62(1):109-16. PMID: 3079597.
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    218. Filicori M, Flamigni C, Vizziello G, Dalpiaz C, Ferrari P, Flamia R, Santoro N, Crowley WF. Hypothalamic control of gonadotropin secretion in the human menstrual cycle. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1986; 225:55-74. PMID: 3097677.
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    219. Santoro N, Filicori M, Spratt D, Crowley WF. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) physiology in men and women. Acta Med Hung. 1986; 43(2):201-21. PMID: 3295743.
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    220. Crowley WF, Filicori M, Spratt DI, Santoro NF. The physiology of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in men and women. Recent Prog Horm Res. 1985; 41:473-531. PMID: 3931190.
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