Colorado PROFILES, The Colorado Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (CCTSI)
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Kathryn Horwitz

TitleDistinguished Professor
InstitutionUniversity of Colorado Denver - Anschutz Medical Campus
DepartmentSOM-MED
Phone303/724-0236

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    R37CA026869     (HORWITZ, KATHRYN B)Dec 1, 1979 - Nov 30, 1999
    NIH/NCI
    PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS IN BREAST CANCER
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01CA026869     (HORWITZ, KATHRYN B)Dec 1, 1979 - Nov 30, 2015
    NIH/NCI
    Mechanisms of Progesterone Receptor Action
    Role: Principal Investigator

    K04CA000694     (HORWITZ, KATHRYN B)Aug 1, 1981 - Jul 31, 1986
    NIH/NCI
    NUCLEAR ESTROGEN RECEPTORS IN BREAST CANCER
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01CA055595     (HORWITZ, KATHRYN B)Apr 7, 1992 - Mar 31, 1996
    NIH/NCI
    PHOSPHORYLATION OF BREAST CANCER PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01DK048238     (HORWITZ, KATHRYN B)Sep 1, 1994 - Mar 31, 2004
    NIH/NIDDK
    TISSUE-SPECIFIC EFFECTS OF PROGESTINS
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R13DK051141     (HORWITZ, KATHRYN B)Mar 5, 1996 - Mar 4, 1997
    NIH/NIDDK
    CONFERENCE ON STEROID/THYROID/RETINOIC ACID GENE FAMILY
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R13DK053755     (HORWITZ, KATHRYN B)Mar 21, 1998 - Feb 28, 1999
    NIH/NIDDK
    CONFERENCE ON NUCLEAR RECEPTOR GENE FAMILY
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Abdel-Hafiz HA, Horwitz KB. Role of epigenetic modifications in luminal breast cancer. Epigenomics. 2015 Aug; 7(5):847-62. PMID: 25689414.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Ogba N, Manning NG, Bliesner BS, Ambler SK, Haughian JM, Pinto MP, Jedlicka P, Joensuu K, Heikkilä P, Horwitz KB. Luminal breast cancer metastases and tumor arousal from dormancy are promoted by direct actions of estradiol and progesterone on the malignant cells. Breast Cancer Res. 2014 Dec 05; 16(6):489. PMID: 25475897.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Pinto MP, Dye WW, Jacobsen BM, Horwitz KB. Malignant stroma increases luminal breast cancer cell proliferation and angiogenesis through platelet-derived growth factor signaling. BMC Cancer. 2014 Oct 01; 14:735. PMID: 25274034.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Knox AJ, Scaling AL, Pinto MP, Bliesner BS, Haughian JM, Abdel-Hafiz HA, Horwitz KB. Modeling luminal breast cancer heterogeneity: combination therapy to suppress a hormone receptor-negative, cytokeratin 5-positive subpopulation in luminal disease. Breast Cancer Res. 2014 Aug 13; 16(4):418. PMID: 25116921.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Abdel-Hafiz HA, Horwitz KB. Post-translational modifications of the progesterone receptors. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014 Mar; 140:80-9. PMID: 24333793.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Harvell DM, Kim J, O'Brien J, Tan AC, Borges VF, Schedin P, Jacobsen BM, Horwitz KB. Genomic signatures of pregnancy-associated breast cancer epithelia and stroma and their regulation by estrogens and progesterone. Horm Cancer. 2013 Jun; 4(3):140-53. PMID: 23479404.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Joensuu K, Leidenius M, Kero M, Andersson LC, Horwitz KB, Heikkilä P. ER, PR, HER2, Ki-67 and CK5 in Early and Late Relapsing Breast Cancer-Reduced CK5 Expression in Metastases. Breast Cancer (Auckl). 2013; 7:23-34. PMID: 23514931.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Jambal P, Badtke MM, Harrell JC, Borges VF, Post MD, Sollender GE, Spillman MA, Horwitz KB, Jacobsen BM. Estrogen switches pure mucinous breast cancer to invasive lobular carcinoma with mucinous features. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013 Jan; 137(2):431-48. PMID: 23247610.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Abdel-Hafiz HA, Horwitz KB. Control of progesterone receptor transcriptional synergy by SUMOylation and deSUMOylation. BMC Mol Biol. 2012 Mar 22; 13:10. PMID: 22439847.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Haughian JM, Pinto MP, Harrell JC, Bliesner BS, Joensuu KM, Dye WW, Sartorius CA, Tan AC, Heikkilä P, Perou CM, Horwitz KB. Maintenance of hormone responsiveness in luminal breast cancers by suppression of Notch. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Feb 21; 109(8):2742-7. PMID: 21969591.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Jacobsen BM, Horwitz KB. Progesterone receptors, their isoforms and progesterone regulated transcription. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012 Jun 24; 357(1-2):18-29. PMID: 21952082.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Pinto MP, Jacobsen BM, Horwitz KB. An immunohistochemical method to study breast cancer cell subpopulations and their growth regulation by hormones in three-dimensional cultures. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2011; 2:15. PMID: 22649363.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Badtke MM, Jambal P, Dye WW, Spillman MA, Post MD, Horwitz KB, Jacobsen BM. Unliganded progesterone receptors attenuate taxane-induced breast cancer cell death by modulating the spindle assembly checkpoint. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012 Jan; 131(1):75-87. PMID: 21340479.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Spillman MA, Manning NG, Dye WW, Sartorius CA, Post MD, Harrell JC, Jacobsen BM, Horwitz KB. Tissue-specific pathways for estrogen regulation of ovarian cancer growth and metastasis. Cancer Res. 2010 Nov 01; 70(21):8927-36. PMID: 20959477.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Kabos P, Haughian JM, Wang X, Dye WW, Finlayson C, Elias A, Horwitz KB, Sartorius CA. Cytokeratin 5 positive cells represent a steroid receptor negative and therapy resistant subpopulation in luminal breast cancers. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011 Jul; 128(1):45-55. PMID: 20665103.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Pinto MP, Badtke MM, Dudevoir ML, Harrell JC, Jacobsen BM, Horwitz KB. Vascular endothelial growth factor secreted by activated stroma enhances angiogenesis and hormone-independent growth of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2010 Apr 01; 70(7):2655-64. PMID: 20332242.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Micalizzi DS, Christensen KL, Jedlicka P, Coletta RD, Barón AE, Harrell JC, Horwitz KB, Billheimer D, Heichman KA, Welm AL, Schiemann WP, Ford HL. The Six1 homeoprotein induces human mammary carcinoma cells to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in mice through increasing TGF-beta signaling. J Clin Invest. 2009 Sep; 119(9):2678-90. PMID: 19726885.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Jacobsen BM, Jambal P, Schittone SA, Horwitz KB. ALU repeats in promoters are position-dependent co-response elements (coRE) that enhance or repress transcription by dimeric and monomeric progesterone receptors. Mol Endocrinol. 2009 Jul; 23(7):989-1000. PMID: 19372234.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Abdel-Hafiz H, Dudevoir ML, Horwitz KB. Mechanisms underlying the control of progesterone receptor transcriptional activity by SUMOylation. J Biol Chem. 2009 Apr 03; 284(14):9099-108. PMID: 19211567.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Horwitz KB. The Year in Basic Science: update of estrogen plus progestin therapy for menopausal hormone replacement implicating stem cells in the increased breast cancer risk. Mol Endocrinol. 2008 Dec; 22(12):2743-50. PMID: 18845670.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Horwitz KB, Sartorius CA. Progestins in hormone replacement therapies reactivate cancer stem cells in women with preexisting breast cancers: a hypothesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Sep; 93(9):3295-8. PMID: 18647813.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Singh M, Spoelstra NS, Jean A, Howe E, Torkko KC, Clark HR, Darling DS, Shroyer KR, Horwitz KB, Broaddus RR, Richer JK. ZEB1 expression in type I vs type II endometrial cancers: a marker of aggressive disease. Mod Pathol. 2008 Jul; 21(7):912-23. PMID: 18487993.
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    23. Horwitz KB, Dye WW, Harrell JC, Kabos P, Sartorius CA. Rare steroid receptor-negative basal-like tumorigenic cells in luminal subtype human breast cancer xenografts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Apr 15; 105(15):5774-9. PMID: 18391223.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Harvell DM, Richer JK, Singh M, Spoelstra N, Finlayson C, Borges VF, Elias AD, Horwitz KB. Estrogen regulated gene expression in response to neoadjuvant endocrine therapy of breast cancers: tamoxifen agonist effects dominate in the presence of an aromatase inhibitor. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008 Dec; 112(3):489-501. PMID: 18338247.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Harvell DM, Spoelstra NS, Singh M, McManaman JL, Finlayson C, Phang T, Trapp S, Hunter L, Dye WW, Borges VF, Elias A, Horwitz KB, Richer JK. Molecular signatures of neoadjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer: characteristics of response or intrinsic resistance. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008 Dec; 112(3):475-88. PMID: 18327671.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Lange CA, Sartorius CA, Abdel-Hafiz H, Spillman MA, Horwitz KB, Jacobsen BM. Progesterone receptor action: translating studies in breast cancer models to clinical insights. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008; 630:94-111. PMID: 18637487.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Harrell JC, Dye WW, Harvell DM, Pinto M, Jedlicka P, Sartorius CA, Horwitz KB. Estrogen insensitivity in a model of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer lymph node metastasis. Cancer Res. 2007 Nov 01; 67(21):10582-91. PMID: 17975003.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Harrell JC, Dye WW, Harvell DM, Sartorius CA, Horwitz KB. Contaminating cells alter gene signatures in whole organ versus laser capture microdissected tumors: a comparison of experimental breast cancers and their lymph node metastases. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2008; 25(1):81-8. PMID: 17932773.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Jones MC, Fusi L, Higham JH, Abdel-Hafiz H, Horwitz KB, Lam EW, Brosens JJ. Regulation of the SUMO pathway sensitizes differentiating human endometrial stromal cells to progesterone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Oct 31; 103(44):16272-7. PMID: 17053081.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Byron SA, Horwitz KB, Richer JK, Lange CA, Zhang X, Yee D. Insulin receptor substrates mediate distinct biological responses to insulin-like growth factor receptor activation in breast cancer cells. Br J Cancer. 2006 Nov 06; 95(9):1220-8. PMID: 17043687.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Harrell JC, Dye WW, Allred DC, Jedlicka P, Spoelstra NS, Sartorius CA, Horwitz KB. Estrogen receptor positive breast cancer metastasis: altered hormonal sensitivity and tumor aggressiveness in lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes. Cancer Res. 2006 Sep 15; 66(18):9308-15. PMID: 16982776.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Jacobsen BM, Harrell JC, Jedlicka P, Borges VF, Varella-Garcia M, Horwitz KB. Spontaneous fusion with, and transformation of mouse stroma by, malignant human breast cancer epithelium. Cancer Res. 2006 Aug 15; 66(16):8274-9. PMID: 16912208.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Tung L, Abdel-Hafiz H, Shen T, Harvell DM, Nitao LK, Richer JK, Sartorius CA, Takimoto GS, Horwitz KB. Progesterone receptors (PR)-B and -A regulate transcription by different mechanisms: AF-3 exerts regulatory control over coactivator binding to PR-B. Mol Endocrinol. 2006 Nov; 20(11):2656-70. PMID: 16762974.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Spoelstra NS, Manning NG, Higashi Y, Darling D, Singh M, Shroyer KR, Broaddus RR, Horwitz KB, Richer JK. The transcription factor ZEB1 is aberrantly expressed in aggressive uterine cancers. Cancer Res. 2006 Apr 01; 66(7):3893-902. PMID: 16585218.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Chadli A, Graham JD, Abel MG, Jackson TA, Gordon DF, Wood WM, Felts SJ, Horwitz KB, Toft D. GCUNC-45 is a novel regulator for the progesterone receptor/hsp90 chaperoning pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Mar; 26(5):1722-30. PMID: 16478993.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Ghatge RP, Jacobsen BM, Schittone SA, Horwitz KB. The progestational and androgenic properties of medroxyprogesterone acetate: gene regulatory overlap with dihydrotestosterone in breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res. 2005; 7(6):R1036-50. PMID: 16457685.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Sartorius CA, Harvell DM, Shen T, Horwitz KB. Progestins initiate a luminal to myoepithelial switch in estrogen-dependent human breast tumors without altering growth. Cancer Res. 2005 Nov 01; 65(21):9779-88. PMID: 16266999.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Carvajal A, Espinoza N, Kato S, Pinto M, Sadarangani A, Monso C, Aranda E, Villalon M, Richer JK, Horwitz KB, Brosens JJ, Owen GI. Progesterone pre-treatment potentiates EGF pathway signaling in the breast cancer cell line ZR-75. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2005 Nov; 94(2):171-83. PMID: 16175315.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Harvell DM, Richer JK, Allred DC, Sartorius CA, Horwitz KB. Estradiol regulates different genes in human breast tumor xenografts compared with the identical cells in culture. Endocrinology. 2006 Feb; 147(2):700-13. PMID: 16239301.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Bray JD, Jelinsky S, Ghatge R, Bray JA, Tunkey C, Saraf K, Jacobsen BM, Richer JK, Brown EL, Winneker RC, Horwitz KB, Lyttle CR. Quantitative analysis of gene regulation by seven clinically relevant progestins suggests a highly similar mechanism of action through progesterone receptors in T47D breast cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2005 Dec; 97(4):328-41. PMID: 16157482.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Fuqua SA, Cui Y, Lee AV, Osborne CK, Horwitz KB. Insights into the role of progesterone receptors in breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Feb 01; 23(4):931-2; author reply 932-3. PMID: 15681552.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Jacobsen BM, Schittone SA, Richer JK, Horwitz KB. Progesterone-independent effects of human progesterone receptors (PRs) in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer: PR isoform-specific gene regulation and tumor biology. Mol Endocrinol. 2005 Mar; 19(3):574-87. PMID: 15563544.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Kato S, Pinto M, Carvajal A, Espinoza N, Monso C, Sadarangani A, Villalon M, Brosens JJ, White JO, Richer JK, Horwitz KB, Owen GI. Progesterone increases tissue factor gene expression, procoagulant activity, and invasion in the breast cancer cell line ZR-75-1. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Feb; 90(2):1181-8. PMID: 15562024.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Hopp TA, Weiss HL, Hilsenbeck SG, Cui Y, Allred DC, Horwitz KB, Fuqua SA. Breast cancer patients with progesterone receptor PR-A-rich tumors have poorer disease-free survival rates. Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Apr 15; 10(8):2751-60. PMID: 15102680.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Wu J, Richer J, Horwitz KB, Hyder SM. Progestin-dependent induction of vascular endothelial growth factor in human breast cancer cells: preferential regulation by progesterone receptor B. Cancer Res. 2004 Mar 15; 64(6):2238-44. PMID: 15026368.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Jacobsen BM, Richer JK, Sartorius CA, Horwitz KB. Expression profiling of human breast cancers and gene regulation by progesterone receptors. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2003 Jul; 8(3):257-68. PMID: 14973372.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Sartorius CA, Shen T, Horwitz KB. Progesterone receptors A and B differentially affect the growth of estrogen-dependent human breast tumor xenografts. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2003 Jun; 79(3):287-99. PMID: 12846413.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Takimoto GS, Tung L, Abdel-Hafiz H, Abel MG, Sartorius CA, Richer JK, Jacobsen BM, Bain DL, Horwitz KB. Functional properties of the N-terminal region of progesterone receptors and their mechanistic relationship to structure. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2003 Jun; 85(2-5):209-19. PMID: 12943706.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Qiu M, Olsen A, Faivre E, Horwitz KB, Lange CA. Mitogen-activated protein kinase regulates nuclear association of human progesterone receptors. Mol Endocrinol. 2003 Apr; 17(4):628-42. PMID: 12554776.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Abdel-Hafiz H, Takimoto GS, Tung L, Horwitz KB. The inhibitory function in human progesterone receptor N termini binds SUMO-1 protein to regulate autoinhibition and transrepression. J Biol Chem. 2002 Sep 13; 277(37):33950-6. PMID: 12114521.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Jacobsen BM, Richer JK, Schittone SA, Horwitz KB. New human breast cancer cells to study progesterone receptor isoform ratio effects and ligand-independent gene regulation. J Biol Chem. 2002 Aug 02; 277(31):27793-800. PMID: 12021276.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Richer JK, Jacobsen BM, Manning NG, Abel MG, Wolf DM, Horwitz KB. Differential gene regulation by the two progesterone receptor isoforms in human breast cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2002 Feb 15; 277(7):5209-18. PMID: 11717311.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Pahl PM, Horwitz MA, Horwitz KB, Horwitz LD. Desferri-exochelin induces death by apoptosis in human breast cancer cells but does not kill normal breast cells. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2001 Sep; 69(1):69-79. PMID: 11759830.
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    54. Shen T, Horwitz KB, Lange CA. Transcriptional hyperactivity of human progesterone receptors is coupled to their ligand-dependent down-regulation by mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent phosphorylation of serine 294. Mol Cell Biol. 2001 Sep; 21(18):6122-31. PMID: 11509655.
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    55. Tung L, Shen T, Abel MG, Powell RL, Takimoto GS, Sartorius CA, Horwitz KB. Mapping the unique activation function 3 in the progesterone B-receptor upstream segment. Two LXXLL motifs and a tryptophan residue are required for activity. J Biol Chem. 2001 Oct 26; 276(43):39843-51. PMID: 11546784.
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    56. Bain DL, Franden MA, McManaman JL, Takimoto GS, Horwitz KB. The N-terminal region of human progesterone B-receptors: biophysical and biochemical comparison to A-receptors. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jun 29; 276(26):23825-31. PMID: 11328821.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Graham JD, Bain DL, Richer JK, Jackson TA, Tung L, Horwitz KB. Thoughts on tamoxifen resistant breast cancer. Are coregulators the answer or just a red herring? J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2000 Nov 30; 74(5):255-9. PMID: 11162933.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Graham JD, Bain DL, Richer JK, Jackson TA, Tung L, Horwitz KB. Nuclear receptor conformation, coregulators, and tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer. Steroids. 2000 Oct-Nov; 65(10-11):579-84. PMID: 11108862.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Kinyamu HK, Fryer CJ, Horwitz KB, Archer TK. The mouse mammary tumor virus promoter adopts distinct chromatin structures in human breast cancer cells with and without glucocorticoid receptor. J Biol Chem. 2000 Jun 30; 275(26):20061-8. PMID: 10751396.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Hodges YK, Tung L, Yan XD, Graham JD, Horwitz KB, Horwitz LD. Estrogen receptors alpha and beta: prevalence of estrogen receptor beta mRNA in human vascular smooth muscle and transcriptional effects. Circulation. 2000 Apr 18; 101(15):1792-8. PMID: 10769279.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Sartorius CA, Takimoto GS, Richer JK, Tung L, Horwitz KB. Association of the Ku autoantigen/DNA-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase with the DNA binding domain of progesterone receptors. J Mol Endocrinol. 2000 Apr; 24(2):165-82. PMID: 10750018.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Bain DL, Franden MA, McManaman JL, Takimoto GS, Horwitz KB. The N-terminal region of the human progesterone A-receptor. Structural analysis and the influence of the DNA binding domain. J Biol Chem. 2000 Mar 10; 275(10):7313-20. PMID: 10702302.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Lange CA, Shen T, Horwitz KB. Phosphorylation of human progesterone receptors at serine-294 by mitogen-activated protein kinase signals their degradation by the 26S proteasome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Feb 01; 97(3):1032-7. PMID: 10655479.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Horwitz KB. Bringing estrogen receptors under control. Breast Cancer Res. 1999; 1(1):5-7. PMID: 11250673.
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    65. Nagaya T, Chen KS, Fujieda M, Ohmori S, Richer JK, Horwitz KB, Lupski JR, Seo H. Localization of the human nuclear receptor corepressor (hN-CoR) gene between the CMT1A and the SMS critical regions of chromosome 17p11.2. Genomics. 1999 Aug 01; 59(3):339-41. PMID: 10444336.
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    66. Lange CA, Richer JK, Horwitz KB. Hypothesis: Progesterone primes breast cancer cells for cross-talk with proliferative or antiproliferative signals. Mol Endocrinol. 1999 Jun; 13(6):829-36. PMID: 10379882.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Hodges YK, Richer JK, Horwitz KB, Horwitz LD. Variant estrogen and progesterone receptor messages in human vascular smooth muscle. Circulation. 1999 May 25; 99(20):2688-93. PMID: 10338464.
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    68. Takimoto GS, Graham JD, Jackson TA, Tung L, Powell RL, Horwitz LD, Horwitz KB. Tamoxifen resistant breast cancer: coregulators determine the direction of transcription by antagonist-occupied steroid receptors. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1999 Apr-Jun; 69(1-6):45-50. PMID: 10418980.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Richer JK, Lange CA, Manning NG, Owen G, Powell R, Horwitz KB. Convergence of progesterone with growth factor and cytokine signaling in breast cancer. Progesterone receptors regulate signal transducers and activators of transcription expression and activity. J Biol Chem. 1998 Nov 20; 273(47):31317-26. PMID: 9813040.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Lange CA, Richer JK, Shen T, Horwitz KB. Convergence of progesterone and epidermal growth factor signaling in breast cancer. Potentiation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. J Biol Chem. 1998 Nov 20; 273(47):31308-16. PMID: 9813039.
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    71. Pahl PM, Hodges YK, Meltesen L, Perryman MB, Horwitz KB, Horwitz LD. ZNF207, a ubiquitously expressed zinc finger gene on chromosome 6p21.3. Genomics. 1998 Nov 01; 53(3):410-2. PMID: 9799612.
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    72. Kumar NS, Richer J, Owen G, Litman E, Horwitz KB, Leslie KK. Selective down-regulation of progesterone receptor isoform B in poorly differentiated human endometrial cancer cells: implications for unopposed estrogen action. Cancer Res. 1998 May 01; 58(9):1860-5. PMID: 9581825.
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    73. Owen GI, Richer JK, Tung L, Takimoto G, Horwitz KB. Progesterone regulates transcription of the p21(WAF1) cyclin- dependent kinase inhibitor gene through Sp1 and CBP/p300. J Biol Chem. 1998 Apr 24; 273(17):10696-701. PMID: 9553133.
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    74. Richer JK, Lange CA, Wierman AM, Brooks KM, Tung L, Takimoto GS, Horwitz KB. Progesterone receptor variants found in breast cells repress transcription by wild-type receptors. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1998 Apr; 48(3):231-41. PMID: 9598870.
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    75. Hovland AR, Powell RL, Takimoto GS, Tung L, Horwitz KB. An N-terminal inhibitory function, IF, suppresses transcription by the A-isoform but not the B-isoform of human progesterone receptors. J Biol Chem. 1998 Mar 06; 273(10):5455-60. PMID: 9488667.
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    76. Horwitz K, Clarke C. Estrogens and progestins in mammary development and neoplasia. Introduction. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 1998 Jan; 3(1):1-2. PMID: 10819499.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Groshong SD, Owen GI, Grimison B, Schauer IE, Todd MC, Langan TA, Sclafani RA, Lange CA, Horwitz KB. Biphasic regulation of breast cancer cell growth by progesterone: role of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 and p27(Kip1). Mol Endocrinol. 1997 Oct; 11(11):1593-607. PMID: 9328342.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Leslie KK, Kumar NS, Richer J, Owen G, Takimoto G, Horwitz KB, Lange C. Differential expression of the A and B isoforms of progesterone receptor in human endometrial cancer cells. Only progesterone receptor B is induced by estrogen and associated with strong transcriptional activation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997 Sep 26; 828:17-26. PMID: 9329820.
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    79. Miller MM, James RA, Richer JK, Gordon DF, Wood WM, Horwitz KB. Progesterone regulated expression of flavin-containing monooxygenase 5 by the B-isoform of progesterone receptors: implications for tamoxifen carcinogenicity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Sep; 82(9):2956-61. PMID: 9284726.
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    80. Jackson TA, Richer JK, Bain DL, Takimoto GS, Tung L, Horwitz KB. The partial agonist activity of antagonist-occupied steroid receptors is controlled by a novel hinge domain-binding coactivator L7/SPA and the corepressors N-CoR or SMRT. Mol Endocrinol. 1997 Jun; 11(6):693-705. PMID: 9171233.
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    81. Petz LN, Nardulli AM, Kim J, Horwitz KB, Freedman LP, Shapiro DJ. DNA bending is induced by binding of the glucocorticoid receptor DNA binding domain and progesterone receptors to their response element. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1997 Jan; 60(1-2):31-41. PMID: 9182856.
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    82. Horwitz KB, Jackson TA, Bain DL, Richer JK, Takimoto GS, Tung L. Nuclear receptor coactivators and corepressors. Mol Endocrinol. 1996 Oct; 10(10):1167-77. PMID: 9121485.
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    83. Takimoto GS, Hovland AR, Tasset DM, Melville MY, Tung L, Horwitz KB. Role of phosphorylation on DNA binding and transcriptional functions of human progesterone receptors. J Biol Chem. 1996 Jun 07; 271(23):13308-16. PMID: 8662865.
      View in: PubMed
    84. Horwitz KB, Tung L, Takimoto GS. Novel mechanisms of antiprogestin action. Acta Oncol. 1996; 35(2):129-40. PMID: 8639307.
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    85. Horwitz KB, Tung L, Takimoto GS. Novel mechanisms of antiprogestin action. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1995 Jun; 53(1-6):9-17. PMID: 7626523.
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    86. Horwitz KB, Izenstein BZ. Kallmann's syndrome with diabetes insipidus. Endocr Pract. 1995 Mar-Apr; 1(2):86-7. PMID: 15251600.
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    87. Horwitz KB. When tamoxifen turns bad. Endocrinology. 1995 Mar; 136(3):821-3. PMID: 7867589.
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    88. Horwitz KB, Sartorius CA, Hovland AR, Jackson TA, Groshong SD, Tung L, Takimoto GS. Surprises with antiprogestins: novel mechanisms of progesterone receptor action. Ciba Found Symp. 1995; 191:235-49; discussion 250-3. PMID: 8582200.
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    89. Mohamed MK, Tung L, Takimoto GS, Horwitz KB. The leucine zippers of c-fos and c-jun for progesterone receptor dimerization: A-dominance in the A/B heterodimer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1994 Dec; 51(5-6):241-50. PMID: 7826885.
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    90. Sartorius CA, Melville MY, Hovland AR, Tung L, Takimoto GS, Horwitz KB. A third transactivation function (AF3) of human progesterone receptors located in the unique N-terminal segment of the B-isoform. Mol Endocrinol. 1994 Oct; 8(10):1347-60. PMID: 7854352.
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    91. Crowley ST, Dempsey EC, Horwitz KB, Horwitz LD. Platelet-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation is modulated by the growth amplification factors serotonin and adenosine diphosphate. Circulation. 1994 Oct; 90(4):1908-18. PMID: 7923679.
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    92. Sartorius CA, Groshong SD, Miller LA, Powell RL, Tung L, Takimoto GS, Horwitz KB. New T47D breast cancer cell lines for the independent study of progesterone B- and A-receptors: only antiprogestin-occupied B-receptors are switched to transcriptional agonists by cAMP. Cancer Res. 1994 Jul 15; 54(14):3868-77. PMID: 8033109.
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    93. Horwitz KB. How do breast cancers become hormone resistant? J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1994 Jun; 49(4-6):295-302. PMID: 8043492.
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    94. Horwitz KB. Hormone 'resistance' in breast cancer: the role of normal and mutant steroid receptors. Cancer Treat Res. 1994; 71:111-27. PMID: 7946945.
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    95. Horwitz KB. Hormone-resistant breast cancer or "feeding the hand that bites you". Prog Clin Biol Res. 1994; 387:29-45. PMID: 7972253.
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    96. Tung L, Mohamed MK, Hoeffler JP, Takimoto GS, Horwitz KB. Antagonist-occupied human progesterone B-receptors activate transcription without binding to progesterone response elements and are dominantly inhibited by A-receptors. Mol Endocrinol. 1993 Oct; 7(10):1256-65. PMID: 8123133.
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    97. Horwitz KB. Can hormone "resistant" breast cancer cells be inappropriately stimulated by tamoxifen? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1993 Jun 11; 684:63-74. PMID: 8317847.
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    98. Sartorius CA, Tung L, Takimoto GS, Horwitz KB. Antagonist-occupied human progesterone receptors bound to DNA are functionally switched to transcriptional agonists by cAMP. J Biol Chem. 1993 May 05; 268(13):9262-6. PMID: 8387487.
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    99. Horwitz KB. Mechanisms of hormone resistance in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1993; 26(2):119-30. PMID: 8219249.
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    100. Takimoto GS, Horwitz KB. Progesterone receptor phosphorylation complexities in defining a functional role. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 1993 Jan-Feb; 4(1):1-7. PMID: 18407126.
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    101. Horwitz KB. The molecular biology of RU486. Is there a role for antiprogestins in the treatment of breast cancer? Endocr Rev. 1992 May; 13(2):146-63. PMID: 1618161.
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    102. Leslie KK, Tasset DM, Horwitz KB. Functional analysis of a mutant estrogen receptor isolated from T47Dco breast cancer cells. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992 Apr; 166(4):1053-61. PMID: 1566760.
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    103. Takimoto GS, Tasset DM, Eppert AC, Horwitz KB. Hormone-induced progesterone receptor phosphorylation consists of sequential DNA-independent and DNA-dependent stages: analysis with zinc finger mutants and the progesterone antagonist ZK98299. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Apr 01; 89(7):3050-4. PMID: 1557412.
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    104. Graham ML, Smith JA, Jewett PB, Horwitz KB. Heterogeneity of progesterone receptor content and remodeling by tamoxifen characterize subpopulations of cultured human breast cancer cells: analysis by quantitative dual parameter flow cytometry. Cancer Res. 1992 Feb 01; 52(3):593-602. PMID: 1732047.
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    105. Horwitz KB. Cellular heterogeneity and mutant oestrogen receptors in hormone resistant breast cancer. Cancer Surv. 1992; 14:41-54. PMID: 1423329.
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    106. Takimoto GS, Tasset DM, Miller LA, Horwitz KB. Epitope mapping of the anti-human progesterone receptor monoclonal antibody, AB-52. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1991 Nov; 39(5A):687-92. PMID: 1720326.
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    107. Wei LL, Gonzalez-Aller C, Wood WM, Miller LA, Horwitz KB. 5'-Heterogeneity in human progesterone receptor transcripts predicts a new amino-terminal truncated "C"-receptor and unique A-receptor messages. Mol Endocrinol. 1990 Dec; 4(12):1833-40. PMID: 2082185.
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    108. Graham ML, Krett NL, Miller LA, Leslie KK, Gordon DF, Wood WM, Wei LL, Horwitz KB. T47DCO cells, genetically unstable and containing estrogen receptor mutations, are a model for the progression of breast cancers to hormone resistance. Cancer Res. 1990 Oct 01; 50(19):6208-17. PMID: 2400987.
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    109. Kastner P, Bocquel MT, Turcotte B, Garnier JM, Horwitz KB, Chambon P, Gronemeyer H. Transient expression of human and chicken progesterone receptors does not support alternative translational initiation from a single mRNA as the mechanism generating two receptor isoforms. J Biol Chem. 1990 Jul 25; 265(21):12163-7. PMID: 2373686.
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    110. Horwitz KB, Sheridan PL, Wei LL, Krett NL. Human progesterone receptors: synthesis, structure, and phosphorylation. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1990; 322:41-52. PMID: 2406737.
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    111. Cappelletti V, Patriarca C, Granata G, Cattoretti G, Coradini D, Di Fronzo G, Horwitz K. Progesterone receptor determination in human breast tumors by immunocytochemical and biochemical techniques. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1989 Nov; 14(2):217-25. PMID: 2690973.
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    112. Graham ML, Dalquist KE, Horwitz KB. Simultaneous measurement of progesterone receptors and DNA indices by flow cytometry: analysis of breast cancer cell mixtures and genetic instability of the T47D line. Cancer Res. 1989 Jul 15; 49(14):3943-9. PMID: 2660983.
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    113. Graham ML, Bunn PA, Jewett PB, Gonzalez-Aller C, Horwitz KB. Simultaneous measurement of progesterone receptors and DNA indices by flow cytometry: characterization of an assay in breast cancer cell lines. Cancer Res. 1989 Jul 15; 49(14):3934-42. PMID: 2736533.
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    114. Sheridan PL, Francis MD, Horwitz KB. Synthesis of human progesterone receptors in T47D cells. Nascent A- and B-receptors are active without a phosphorylation-dependent post-translational maturation step. J Biol Chem. 1989 Apr 25; 264(12):7054-8. PMID: 2708354.
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    115. Sheridan PL, Evans RM, Horwitz KB. Phosphotryptic peptide analysis of human progesterone receptor. New phosphorylated sites formed in nuclei after hormone treatment. J Biol Chem. 1989 Apr 15; 264(11):6520-8. PMID: 2703504.
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    116. Sheridan PL, Krett NL, Gordon JA, Horwitz KB. Human progesterone receptor transformation and nuclear down-regulation are independent of phosphorylation. Mol Endocrinol. 1988 Dec; 2(12):1329-42. PMID: 3063956.
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    117. Krett NL, Wei LL, Francis MD, Nordeen SK, Gordon DF, Wood WM, Horwitz KB. Human progesterone A-receptors can be synthesized intracellularly and are biologically functional. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988 Nov 30; 157(1):278-85. PMID: 3196338.
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    118. Horwitz KB. Purification, monoclonal antibody production and structural analyses of human progesterone receptors. J Steroid Biochem. 1988 Oct; 31(4B):573-8. PMID: 3199807.
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    119. Horwitz KB. The central role of progesterone receptors and progestational agents in the management and treatment of breast cancer. Semin Oncol. 1988 Apr; 15(2 Suppl 1):14-9. PMID: 3285481.
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    120. Wei LL, Krett NL, Francis MD, Gordon DF, Wood WM, O'Malley BW, Horwitz KB. Multiple human progesterone receptor messenger ribonucleic acids and their autoregulation by progestin agonists and antagonists in breast cancer cells. Mol Endocrinol. 1988 Jan; 2(1):62-72. PMID: 3398843.
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    121. Wei LL, Sheridan PL, Krett NL, Francis MD, Toft DO, Edwards DP, Horwitz KB. Immunologic analysis of human breast cancer progesterone receptors. 2. Structure, phosphorylation, and processing. Biochemistry. 1987 Sep 22; 26(19):6262-72. PMID: 3689774.
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    122. Estes PA, Suba EJ, Lawler-Heavner J, Elashry-Stowers D, Wei LL, Toft DO, Sullivan WP, Horwitz KB, Edwards DP. Immunologic analysis of human breast cancer progesterone receptors. 1. Immunoaffinity purification of transformed receptors and production of monoclonal antibodies. Biochemistry. 1987 Sep 22; 26(19):6250-62. PMID: 3689773.
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    123. Horwitz KB. The structure and function of progesterone receptors in breast cancer. J Steroid Biochem. 1987; 27(1-3):447-57. PMID: 3320537.
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    124. Horwitz KB, Pike AW, Gonzalez-Aller C, Fennessey PV. Progesterone metabolism in T47Dco human breast cancer cells--II. Intracellular metabolic path of progesterone and synthetic progestins. J Steroid Biochem. 1986 Dec; 25(6):911-6. PMID: 3467141.
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    125. Fennessey PV, Pike AW, Gonzalez-Aller C, Horwitz KB. Progesterone metabolism in T47Dco human breast cancer cells--I. 5 alpha-pregnan-3 beta,6 alpha-diol-20-one is the secreted product. J Steroid Biochem. 1986 Nov; 25(5A):641-8. PMID: 3795943.
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    126. Horwitz KB, Wei LL, Francis MD. Structural analyses of progesterone receptors. J Steroid Biochem. 1986 Jan; 24(1):109-17. PMID: 3702401.
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    127. Horwitz KB, Francis MD, Wei LL. Hormone-dependent covalent modification and processing of human progesterone receptors in the nucleus. DNA. 1985 Dec; 4(6):451-60. PMID: 4092571.
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    128. Wei LL, Horwitz KB. The structure of progesterone receptors. Steroids. 1985 Aug-Sep; 46(2-3):677-95. PMID: 3837410.
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    129. Horwitz KB. The antiprogestin RU38 486: receptor-mediated progestin versus antiprogestin actions screened in estrogen-insensitive T47Dco human breast cancer cells. Endocrinology. 1985 Jun; 116(6):2236-45. PMID: 4039656.
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    130. Horwitz KB, Freidenberg GR. Growth inhibition and increase of insulin receptors in antiestrogen-resistant T47DCO human breast cancer cells by progestins: implications for endocrine therapies. Cancer Res. 1985 Jan; 45(1):167-73. PMID: 3838085.
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    131. Hiatt WR, Travis VL, Horwitz KB, Horwitz LD. The effect of platelet protein and DNA on the measurement of human lymphocyte beta adrenergic receptor number. J Recept Res. 1985; 5(5-6):419-29. PMID: 3003354.
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    132. Horwitz KB, Wei LL, Sedlacek SM, d'Arville CN. Progestin action and progesterone receptor structure in human breast cancer: a review. Recent Prog Horm Res. 1985; 41:249-316. PMID: 3931189.
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    133. Sedlacek SM, Horwitz KB. The role of progestins and progesterone receptors in the treatment of breast cancer. Steroids. 1984 Dec; 44(6):467-84. PMID: 6400150.
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    134. Horwitz KB, Alexander PS. In situ photolinked nuclear progesterone receptors of human breast cancer cells: subunit molecular weights after transformation and translocation. Endocrinology. 1983 Dec; 113(6):2195-201. PMID: 6685620.
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    135. Horwitz KB, Mockus MB, Pike AW, Fennessey PV, Sheridan RL. Progesterone receptor replenishment in T47D human breast cancer cells. Roles of protein synthesis and hormone metabolism. J Biol Chem. 1983 Jun 25; 258(12):7603-10. PMID: 6683273.
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    136. Mockus MB, Horwitz KB. Progesterone receptors in human breast cancer. Stoichiometric translocation and nuclear receptor processing. J Biol Chem. 1983 Apr 25; 258(8):4778-83. PMID: 6833276.
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    137. Lessey BA, Alexander PS, Horwitz KB. The subunit structure of human breast cancer progesterone receptors: characterization by chromatography and photoaffinity labeling. Endocrinology. 1983 Apr; 112(4):1267-74. PMID: 6682030.
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    138. Mockus MB, Lessey BA, Bower MA, Horwitz KB. Estrogen-insensitive progesterone receptors in a human breast cancer cell line: characterization of receptors and of a ligand exchange assay. Endocrinology. 1982 May; 110(5):1564-71. PMID: 7200421.
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    139. Horwitz KB, Horwitz LD. Canine vascular tissues are targets for androgens, estrogens, progestins, and glucocorticoids. J Clin Invest. 1982 Apr; 69(4):750-8. PMID: 6281310.
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    140. Horwitz KB, Mockus MB, Lessey BA. Variant T47D human breast cancer cells with high progesterone-receptor levels despite estrogen and antiestrogen resistance. Cell. 1982 Mar; 28(3):633-42. PMID: 7200400.
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    141. Horwitz KB. Is a functional estrogen receptor always required for progesterone receptor induction in breast cancer? J Steroid Biochem. 1981 Dec; 15:209-17. PMID: 7339247.
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    142. Horwitz KB, Aiginger P, Kuttenn F, McGuire WL. Nuclear estrogen receptor release from antiestrogen suppression: amplified induction of progesterone receptor in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Endocrinology. 1981 May; 108(5):1703-9. PMID: 7194178.
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    143. Horwitz KB, McGuire WL. Nuclear estrogen receptors. Effect of inhibitors on processing and steady state levels. J Biol Chem. 1980 Oct 25; 255(20):9699-705. PMID: 6968750.
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    144. Edwards DP, Martin PM, Horwitz KB, Chamness GC, McGuire WL. Subcellular compartmentalization of estrogen receptors in human breast cancer cells. Exp Cell Res. 1980 May; 127(1):197-213. PMID: 7379864.
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    145. Horwitz KB, McGuire WL. Studies on mechanisms of estrogen and antiestrogen action in human breast cancer. Recent Results Cancer Res. 1980; 71:45-58. PMID: 6988916.
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    146. Zava DT, Landrum B, Horwitz KB, McGuire WL. Androgen receptor assay with [3H]methyltrienolone (R1881) in the presence of progesterone receptors. Endocrinology. 1979 Apr; 104(4):1007-12. PMID: 436741.
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    147. Horwitz KB, McGuire WL. Estrogen control of progesterone receptor induction in human breast cancer: role of nuclear estrogen receptor. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1979; 117:95-110. PMID: 474293.
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    148. Horwitz KB, McGuire WL. Nuclear mechanisms of estrogen action. Effects of estradiol and anti-estrogens on estrogen receptors and nuclear receptor processing. J Biol Chem. 1978 Nov 25; 253(22):8185-91. PMID: 711743.
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    149. Horwitz KB, Koseki Y, McGuire WL. Estrogen control of progesterone receptor in human breast cancer: role of estradiol and antiestrogen. Endocrinology. 1978 Nov; 103(5):1742-51. PMID: 748014.
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    150. Martin PM, Horwitz KB, Ryan DS, McGuire WL. Phytoestrogen interaction with estrogen receptors in human breast cancer cells. Endocrinology. 1978 Nov; 103(5):1860-7. PMID: 570914.
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    151. Horwitz KB, McGuire WL. Actinomycin D prevents nuclear processing of estrogen receptor. J Biol Chem. 1978 Sep 25; 253(18):6319-22. PMID: 681355.
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    152. Horwitz KB, Zava DT, Thilagar AK, Jensen EM, McGuire WL. Steroid receptor analyses of nine human breast cancer cell lines. Cancer Res. 1978 Aug; 38(8):2434-7. PMID: 667841.
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    153. McGuire WL, Zava DT, Horwitz KB, Garola RE, Chamness GC. Receptors and breast cancer: do we know it all? J Steroid Biochem. 1978 May; 9(5):461-6. PMID: 682638.
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    154. Horwitz KB, McGuire WL. Estrogen control of progesterone receptor in human breast cancer. Correlation with nuclear processing of estrogen receptor. J Biol Chem. 1978 Apr 10; 253(7):2223-8. PMID: 632265.
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    155. McGuire WL, Horwitz KB, Zava DT, Garola RE, Chamness GC. Hormones in breast cancer: update 1978. Metabolism. 1978 Apr; 27(4):487-501. PMID: 345042.
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    156. McGuire WL, Zava DT, Horwitz KB, Chamness GC. Steroid receptors in breast tumors--current status. Curr Top Exp Endocrinol. 1978; 3:93-129. PMID: 350504.
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    157. McGuire WL, Horwitz KB, Pearson OH, Segaloff A. Current status of estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer. Cancer. 1977 Jun; 39(6 Suppl):2934-47. PMID: 326386.
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    158. Horwitz KB, McGuire WL. Progesterone and progesterone receptors in experimental breast cancer. Cancer Res. 1977 Jun; 37(6):1733-8. PMID: 404036.
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    159. Zava DT, Chamness GC, Horwitz KB, McGuire WL. Human breast cancer: biologically active estrogen receptor in the absence of estrogen? Science. 1977 May 06; 196(4290):663-4. PMID: 193182.
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    160. McGuire WL, Horwitz KB. A role for progesterone in breast cancer. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1977 Mar 11; 286:90-100. PMID: 363023.
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    161. McGuire WL, Chamness GC, Horwitz KB, Zava DT. Prolactin and estrogen receptors in breast cancer. Pathobiol Annu. 1977; 7:191-211. PMID: 201904.
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    162. McGuire WL, Horwitz KB, Chamness GC, Zava DT. A physiological role for estrogen and progesterone in breast cancer. J Steroid Biochem. 1976 Nov-Dec; 7(11-12):875-82. PMID: 799735.
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    163. McGuire WL, Horwitz KB, De La Garza M. Selecting endocrine therapy in breast cancer. Curr Top Mol Endocrinol. 1976; 4:28-35. PMID: 1027543.
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    164. Horwitz KB, Costlow ME, McGuire WL. MCF-7; a human breast cancer cell line with estrogen, androgen, progesterone, and glucocorticoid receptors. Steroids. 1975 Dec; 26(6):785-95. PMID: 175527.
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    165. Horwitz KB, McGuire WL. Predicting response to endocrine therapy in human breast cancer: a hypothesis. Science. 1975 Aug 29; 189(4204):726-7. PMID: 168640.
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    166. Horwitz KB, McGuire WL. Specific progesterone receptors in human breast cancer. Steroids. 1975 Apr; 25(4):497-505. PMID: 165596.
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    167. Horwitz KB, Ball RJ, Schmidt JP. Resistance to infection of mice and hamsters following short term acceleration stress. Aerosp Med. 1969 Nov; 40(11):1248-51. PMID: 4913567.
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