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John C DeFries

TitleSr Research Associate
InstitutionUniversity of Colorado Boulder
DepartmentInstitute for Behav Genetics
Phone303/492-2839

    Collapse Research 
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    R01HD010333     (WADSWORTH, SALLY J)Apr 1, 1977 - Jul 31, 2012
    NIH
    Determinants of Behavioral Development
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    P01HD011681     (DEFRIES, JOHN)Jan 1, 1986 - Jun 30, 1992
    NIH
    DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS IN READING DISABILITY
    Role: Principal Investigator

    T32MH016880     (HEWITT, JOHN K.)Jul 1, 1989 - Jun 30, 2025
    NIH
    Research Training: Mental Health Behavior Genetics
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    S15AA008902     (DEFRIES, JOHN)Sep 17, 1990 - Aug 31, 1991
    NIH
    ASIP- UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT BOULDER
    Role: Principal Investigator

    S15GM047062     (DEFRIES, JOHN)Jun 1, 1991 - May 31, 1992
    NIH
    SMALL INSTRUMENTATION GRANT
    Role: Principal Investigator

    S15AA009259     (DEFRIES, JOHN)Sep 30, 1991 - Aug 31, 1992
    NIH
    SMALL INSTRUMENTATION GRANT
    Role: Principal Investigator

    P50DA005131     (DEFRIES, JOHN)Sep 1, 1992 - Aug 31, 1997
    NIH
    BEHAVIORAL GENETIC STUDIES OF DRUG ABUSE VULNERABILITY
    Role: Principal Investigator

    P50HD027802     (WILLCUTT, ERIK G)Dec 1, 1996 - Jul 31, 2022
    NIH
    Differential Diagnosis in Learning Disabilities
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    R01MH053480     (DEFRIES, JOHN)Jun 1, 1997 - May 31, 2001
    NIH
    QTL ANALYSIS OF FEAR-RELATED BEHAVIOR IN RODENTS
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01HD036773     (STALLINGS, MICHAEL C)Aug 1, 1998 - May 31, 2009
    NIH
    Nature &Nurture in Social Demography: An Adoption Study
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Gialluisi A, Andlauer TFM, Mirza-Schreiber N, Moll K, Becker J, Hoffmann P, Ludwig KU, Czamara D, Pourcain BS, Honbolygó F, Tóth D, Csépe V, Huguet G, Chaix Y, Iannuzzi S, Demonet JF, Morris AP, Hulslander J, Willcutt EG, DeFries JC, Olson RK, Smith SD, Pennington BF, Vaessen A, Maurer U, Lyytinen H, Peyrard-Janvid M, Leppänen PHT, Brandeis D, Bonte M, Stein JF, Talcott JB, Fauchereau F, Wilcke A, Kirsten H, Müller B, Francks C, Bourgeron T, Monaco AP, Ramus F, Landerl K, Kere J, Scerri TS, Paracchini S, Fisher SE, Schumacher J, Nöthen MM, Müller-Myhsok B, Schulte-Körne G. Genome-wide association study reveals new insights into the heritability and genetic correlates of developmental dyslexia. Mol Psychiatry. 2020 Oct 14. PMID: 33057169.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Thomas AL, Evans LM, Nelsen MD, Chesler EJ, Powers MS, Booher WC, Lowry CA, DeFries JC, Ehringer MA. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Inbred Mouse Strains Selected for High and Low Open-Field Activity. Behav Genet. 2021 01; 51(1):68-81. PMID: 32939625.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Wadsworth SJ, Corley RP, Munoz E, Trubenstein BP, Knaap E, DeFries JC, Plomin R, Reynolds CA. CATSLife: A Study of Lifespan Behavioral Development and Cognitive Functioning - Corrigendum. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2019 12; 22(6):829. PMID: 31959274.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Wadsworth SJ, Corley RP, Munoz E, Trubenstein BP, Knaap E, DeFries JC, Plomin R, Reynolds CA. CATSLife: A Study of Lifespan Behavioral Development and Cognitive Functioning. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2019 12; 22(6):695-706. PMID: 31547893.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Willcutt EG, McGrath LM, Pennington BF, Keenan JM, DeFries JC, Olson RK, Wadsworth SJ. Understanding Comorbidity Between Specific Learning Disabilities. New Dir Child Adolesc Dev. 2019 May; 2019(165):91-109. PMID: 31070302.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Reynolds CA, Smolen A, Corley RP, Munoz E, Friedman NP, Rhee SH, Stallings MC, DeFries JC, Wadsworth SJ. APOE effects on cognition from childhood to adolescence. Neurobiol Aging. 2019 12; 84:239.e1-239.e8. PMID: 31126628.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Truong DT, Adams AK, Paniagua S, Frijters JC, Boada R, Hill DE, Lovett MW, Mahone EM, Willcutt EG, Wolf M, Defries JC, Gialluisi A, Francks C, Fisher SE, Olson RK, Pennington BF, Smith SD, Bosson-Heenan J, Gruen JR. Multivariate genome-wide association study of rapid automatised naming and rapid alternating stimulus in Hispanic American and African-American youth. J Med Genet. 2019 08; 56(8):557-566. PMID: 30995994.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Gialluisi A, Andlauer TFM, Mirza-Schreiber N, Moll K, Becker J, Hoffmann P, Ludwig KU, Czamara D, St Pourcain B, Brandler W, Honbolygó F, Tóth D, Csépe V, Huguet G, Morris AP, Hulslander J, Willcutt EG, DeFries JC, Olson RK, Smith SD, Pennington BF, Vaessen A, Maurer U, Lyytinen H, Peyrard-Janvid M, Leppänen PHT, Brandeis D, Bonte M, Stein JF, Talcott JB, Fauchereau F, Wilcke A, Francks C, Bourgeron T, Monaco AP, Ramus F, Landerl K, Kere J, Scerri TS, Paracchini S, Fisher SE, Schumacher J, Nöthen MM, Müller-Myhsok B, Schulte-Körne G. Genome-wide association scan identifies new variants associated with a cognitive predictor of dyslexia. Transl Psychiatry. 2019 02 11; 9(1):77. PMID: 30741946.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Ricker AA, Corley R, DeFries JC, Wadsworth SJ, Reynolds CA. Examining the influence of perceived stress on developmental change in memory and perceptual speed for adopted and nonadopted individuals. Dev Psychol. 2018 01; 54(1):138-150. PMID: 28981301.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Adams AK, Smith SD, Truong DT, Willcutt EG, Olson RK, DeFries JC, Pennington BF, Gruen JR. Enrichment of putatively damaging rare variants in the DYX2 locus and the reading-related genes CCDC136 and FLNC. Hum Genet. 2017 11; 136(11-12):1395-1405. PMID: 28866788.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Ayorech Z, Selzam S, Smith-Woolley E, Knopik VS, Neiderhiser JM, DeFries JC, Plomin R. Erratum to: Publication Trends Over 55 Years of Behavioral Genetic Research. Behav Genet. 2017 07; 47(4):468. PMID: 28474239.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Selzam S, Dale PS, Wagner RK, DeFries JC, Cederlöf M, O'Reilly PF, Krapohl E, Plomin R. Genome-Wide Polygenic Scores Predict Reading Performance Throughout the School Years. Sci Stud Read. 2017 Jul 04; 21(4):334-349. PMID: 28706435.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Arnett AB, Pennington BF, Peterson RL, Willcutt EG, DeFries JC, Olson RK. Explaining the sex difference in dyslexia. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2017 Jun; 58(6):719-727. PMID: 28176347.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Wadsworth SJ, DeFries JC, Willcutt EG, Pennington BF, Olson RK. Genetic Etiologies of Comorbidity and Stability for Reading Difficulties and ADHD: A Replication Study. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2016 12; 19(6):647-651. PMID: 27748217.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Gialluisi A, Visconti A, Willcutt EG, Smith SD, Pennington BF, Falchi M, DeFries JC, Olson RK, Francks C, Fisher SE. Investigating the effects of copy number variants on reading and language performance. J Neurodev Disord. 2016; 8:17. PMID: 27186239.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Huibregtse BM, Corley RP, Wadsworth SJ, Vandever JM, DeFries JC, Stallings MC. A Longitudinal Adoption Study of Substance Use Behavior in Adolescence. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2016 08; 19(4):330-40. PMID: 27161024.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Christopher ME, Keenan JM, Hulslander J, DeFries JC, Miyake A, Wadsworth SJ, Willcutt E, Pennington B, Olson RK. The genetic and environmental etiologies of the relations between cognitive skills and components of reading ability. J Exp Psychol Gen. 2016 Apr; 145(4):451-66. PMID: 26974208.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Ayorech Z, Selzam S, Smith-Woolley E, Knopik VS, Neiderhiser JM, DeFries JC, Plomin R. Publication Trends Over 55 Years of Behavioral Genetic Research. Behav Genet. 2016 09; 46(5):603-607. PMID: 26992731.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Plomin R, DeFries JC, Knopik VS, Neiderhiser JM. Top 10 Replicated Findings From Behavioral Genetics. Perspect Psychol Sci. 2016 Jan; 11(1):3-23. PMID: 26817721.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Wadsworth SJ, DeFries JC, Willcutt EG, Pennington BF, Olson RK. The Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Difficulties and ADHD: Etiologies of Comorbidity and Stability. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2015 Dec; 18(6):755-61. PMID: 26537134.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Arnett AB, Pennington BF, Willcutt EG, DeFries JC, Olson RK. Sex differences in ADHD symptom severity. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2015 Jun; 56(6):632-9. PMID: 25283790.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Christopher ME, Hulslander J, Byrne B, Samuelsson S, Keenan JM, Pennington B, DeFries JC, Wadsworth SJ, Willcutt E, Olson RK. Genetic and environmental etiologies of the longitudinal relations between prereading skills and reading. Child Dev. 2015 Mar-Apr; 86(2):342-61. PMID: 25263167.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Gialluisi A, Newbury DF, Wilcutt EG, Olson RK, DeFries JC, Brandler WM, Pennington BF, Smith SD, Scerri TS, Simpson NH, Luciano M, Evans DM, Bates TC, Stein JF, Talcott JB, Monaco AP, Paracchini S, Francks C, Fisher SE. Genome-wide screening for DNA variants associated with reading and language traits. Genes Brain Behav. 2014 Sep; 13(7):686-701. PMID: 25065397.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Eicher JD, Powers NR, Miller LL, Mueller KL, Mascheretti S, Marino C, Willcutt EG, DeFries JC, Olson RK, Smith SD, Pennington BF, Tomblin JB, Ring SM, Gruen JR. Characterization of the DYX2 locus on chromosome 6p22 with reading disability, language impairment, and IQ. Hum Genet. 2014 Jul; 133(7):869-81. PMID: 24509779.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Willcutt EG, Chhabildas N, Kinnear M, DeFries JC, Olson RK, Leopold DR, Keenan JM, Pennington BF. The internal and external validity of sluggish cognitive tempo and its relation with DSM-IV ADHD. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2014 Jan; 42(1):21-35. PMID: 24122408.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Power RA, Nagoshi C, DeFries JC, Plomin R. Genome-wide estimates of inbreeding in unrelated individuals and their association with cognitive ability. Eur J Hum Genet. 2014 Mar; 22(3):386-90. PMID: 23860046.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Brant AM, Munakata Y, Boomsma DI, Defries JC, Haworth CM, Keller MC, Martin NG, McGue M, Petrill SA, Plomin R, Wadsworth SJ, Wright MJ, Hewitt JK. The nature and nurture of high IQ: an extended sensitive period for intellectual development. Psychol Sci. 2013 Aug; 24(8):1487-95. PMID: 23818653.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Christopher ME, Hulslander J, Byrne B, Samuelsson S, Keenan JM, Pennington B, Defries JC, Wadsworth SJ, Willcutt E, Olson RK. The genetic and environmental etiologies of individual differences in early reading growth in Australia, the United States, and Scandinavia. J Exp Child Psychol. 2013 Jul; 115(3):453-67. PMID: 23665180.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Trzaskowski M, Davis OS, DeFries JC, Yang J, Visscher PM, Plomin R. DNA evidence for strong genome-wide pleiotropy of cognitive and learning abilities. Behav Genet. 2013 Jul; 43(4):267-73. PMID: 23609157.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Fujisawa KK, Wadsworth SJ, Kakihana S, Olson RK, Defries JC, Byrne B, Ando J. A multivariate twin study of early literacy in Japanese Kana. Learn Individ Differ. 2013 Apr 01; 24:160-167. PMID: 23997545.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Willcutt EG, Petrill SA, Wu S, Boada R, Defries JC, Olson RK, Pennington BF. Comorbidity between reading disability and math disability: concurrent psychopathology, functional impairment, and neuropsychological functioning. J Learn Disabil. 2013 Nov-Dec; 46(6):500-16. PMID: 23449727.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Rhea SA, Bricker JB, Corley RP, Defries JC, Wadsworth SJ. Design, Utility, and History of the Colorado Adoption Project: Examples Involving Adjustment Interactions. Adopt Q. 2013; 16(1):17-39. PMID: 23833552.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Christopher ME, Hulslander J, Byrne B, Samuelsson S, Keenan JM, Pennington B, Defries JC, Wadsworth SJ, Willcutt E, Olson RK. Modeling the Etiology of Individual Differences in Early Reading Development: Evidence for Strong Genetic Influences. Sci Stud Read. 2013; 17(5):350-368. PMID: 24489459.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Christopher ME, Miyake A, Keenan JM, Pennington B, DeFries JC, Wadsworth SJ, Willcutt E, Olson RK. Predicting word reading and comprehension with executive function and speed measures across development: a latent variable analysis. J Exp Psychol Gen. 2012 Aug; 141(3):470-488. PMID: 22352396.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Astrom RL, Wadsworth SJ, Olson RK, Willcutt EG, Defries JC. Genetic and environmental etiologies of reading difficulties: DeFries-Fulker analysis of reading performance data from twin pairs and their nontwin siblings. Learn Individ Differ. 2012 Jun 01; 22(3):365-369. PMID: 22927712.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Wadsworth SJ, Olson RK, Willcutt EG, DeFries JC. Multiple regression analysis of reading performance data from twin pairs with reading difficulties and nontwin siblings: the augmented model. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2012 Feb; 15(1):116-9. PMID: 22784461.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Willcutt EG, Boada R, Riddle MW, Chhabildas N, DeFries JC, Pennington BF. Colorado Learning Difficulties Questionnaire: validation of a parent-report screening measure. Psychol Assess. 2011 Sep; 23(3):778-91. PMID: 21574721.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Olson RK, Hulslander J, Christopher M, Keenan JM, Wadsworth SJ, Willcutt EG, Pennington BF, DeFries JC. Genetic and environmental influences on writing and their relations to language and reading. Ann Dyslexia. 2013 Apr; 63(1):25-43. PMID: 21842316.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Astrom RL, Wadsworth SJ, Olson RK, Willcutt EG, DeFries JC. DeFries-Fulker analysis of longitudinal reading performance data from twin pairs ascertained for reading difficulties and from their nontwin siblings. Behav Genet. 2011 Sep; 41(5):660-7. PMID: 21259040.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Bidwell LC, Willcutt EG, McQueen MB, DeFries JC, Olson RK, Smith SD, Pennington BF. A family based association study of DRD4, DAT1, and 5HTT and continuous traits of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Behav Genet. 2011 Jan; 41(1):165-74. PMID: 21207241.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Betjemann RS, Keenan JM, Olson RK, Defries JC. Choice of Reading Comprehension Test Influences the Outcomes of Genetic Analyses. Sci Stud Read. 2011 Jan 01; 15(4):363-382. PMID: 21804757.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Nilsson R, Rhee SH, Corley RP, Rhea SA, Wadsworth SJ, Defries JC. Conduct Problems in Adopted and Non-adopted Adolescents and Adoption Satisfaction as a Protective Factor. Adopt Q. 2011; 14(3):181-198. PMID: 22259226.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Olson RK, Keenan JM, Byrne B, Samuelsson S, Coventry WL, Corley R, Wadsworth SJ, Willcutt EG, Defries JC, Pennington BF, Hulslander J. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Vocabulary and Reading Development. Sci Stud Read. 2011; 15(1):26-46. PMID: 21132077.
      View in: PubMed
    44. McGrath LM, Pennington BF, Shanahan MA, Santerre-Lemmon LE, Barnard HD, Willcutt EG, Defries JC, Olson RK. A multiple deficit model of reading disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: searching for shared cognitive deficits. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2011 May; 52(5):547-57. PMID: 21126246.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Scerri TS, Paracchini S, Morris A, MacPhie IL, Talcott J, Stein J, Smith SD, Pennington BF, Olson RK, DeFries JC, Monaco AP, Richardson AJ. Identification of candidate genes for dyslexia susceptibility on chromosome 18. PLoS One. 2010 Oct 28; 5(10):e13712. PMID: 21060895.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Smith SD, Grigorenko E, Willcutt E, Pennington BF, Olson RK, DeFries JC. Etiologies and molecular mechanisms of communication disorders. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2010 Sep; 31(7):555-63. PMID: 20814255.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Willcutt EG, Pennington BF, Duncan L, Smith SD, Keenan JM, Wadsworth S, Defries JC, Olson RK. Understanding the complex etiologies of developmental disorders: behavioral and molecular genetic approaches. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2010 Sep; 31(7):533-44. PMID: 20814254.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Willcutt EG, Betjemann RS, McGrath LM, Chhabildas NA, Olson RK, DeFries JC, Pennington BF. Etiology and neuropsychology of comorbidity between RD and ADHD: the case for multiple-deficit models. Cortex. 2010 Nov-Dec; 46(10):1345-61. PMID: 20828676.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Wadsworth SJ, Olson RK, DeFries JC. Differential genetic etiology of reading difficulties as a function of IQ: an update. Behav Genet. 2010 Nov; 40(6):751-8. PMID: 20333543.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Betjemann RS, Johnson EP, Barnard H, Boada R, Filley CM, Filipek PA, Willcutt EG, DeFries JC, Pennington BF. Genetic covariation between brain volumes and IQ, reading performance, and processing speed. Behav Genet. 2010 Mar; 40(2):135-45. PMID: 20072853.
      View in: PubMed
    51. DeFries JC. Haseman and Elston sib-pair linkage analysis: a brief historical note. Behav Genet. 2010 Jan; 40(1):1-2. PMID: 19707863.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Hawke JL, Olson RK, Willcut EG, Wadsworth SJ, DeFries JC. Gender ratios for reading difficulties. Dyslexia. 2009 Aug; 15(3):239-42. PMID: 19367616.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Haworth CM, Wright MJ, Luciano M, Martin NG, de Geus EJ, van Beijsterveldt CE, Bartels M, Posthuma D, Boomsma DI, Davis OS, Kovas Y, Corley RP, Defries JC, Hewitt JK, Olson RK, Rhea SA, Wadsworth SJ, Iacono WG, McGue M, Thompson LA, Hart SA, Petrill SA, Lubinski D, Plomin R. The heritability of general cognitive ability increases linearly from childhood to young adulthood. Mol Psychiatry. 2010 Nov; 15(11):1112-20. PMID: 19488046.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Byrne B, Coventry WL, Olson RK, Samuelsson S, Corley R, Willcutt EG, Wadsworth S, Defries JC. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Aspects of Literacy and Language in Early Childhood: Continuity and Change from Preschool to Grade 2. J Neurolinguistics. 2009 May; 22(3):219-236. PMID: 20161176.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Brant AM, Haberstick BC, Corley RP, Wadsworth SJ, DeFries JC, Hewitt JK. The developmental etiology of high IQ. Behav Genet. 2009 Jul; 39(4):393-405. PMID: 19377873.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Friend A, DeFries JC, Olson RK, Pennington B, Harlaar N, Byrne B, Samuelsson S, Willcutt EG, Wadsworth SJ, Corley R, Keenan JM. Heritability of high reading ability and its interaction with parental education. Behav Genet. 2009 Jul; 39(4):427-36. PMID: 19296213.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Pennington BF, McGrath LM, Rosenberg J, Barnard H, Smith SD, Willcutt EG, Friend A, Defries JC, Olson RK. Gene X environment interactions in reading disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Dev Psychol. 2009 Jan; 45(1):77-89. PMID: 19209992.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Friend A, DeFries JC, Olson RK. Parental education moderates genetic influences on reading disability. Psychol Sci. 2008 Nov; 19(11):1124-30. PMID: 19076484.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Friedman NP, Miyake A, Young SE, DeFries JC, Corley RP, Hewitt JK. Individual differences in executive functions are almost entirely genetic in origin. J Exp Psychol Gen. 2008 May; 137(2):201-225. PMID: 18473654.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Hawke JL, Stallings MC, Wadsworth SJ, DeFries JC. DeFries-Fulker and Pearson-Aitken model-fitting analyses of reading performance data from selected and unselected twin pairs. Behav Genet. 2008 Mar; 38(2):101-7. PMID: 18213514.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Samuelsson S, Byrne B, Olson RK, Hulslander J, Wadsworth S, Corley R, Willcutt EG, Defries JC. Response to early literacy instruction in the United States, Australia, and Scandinavia: A behavioral-genetic analysis. Learn Individ Differ. 2008; 18(3):289-295. PMID: 19122888.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Wadsworth SJ, DeFries JC, Olson RK, Willcutt EG. Colorado longitudinal twin study of reading disability. Ann Dyslexia. 2007 Dec; 57(2):139-60. PMID: 18060583.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Willcutt EG, Pennington BF, Olson RK, DeFries JC. Understanding comorbidity: a twin study of reading disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. . 2007 Sep 05; 144B(6):709-14. PMID: 17440942.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Rhee SH, Willcutt EG, Hartman CA, Pennington BF, DeFries JC. Test of alternative hypotheses explaining the comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2008 Jan; 36(1):29-40. PMID: 17636436.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Bidwell LC, Willcutt EG, Defries JC, Pennington BF. Testing for neuropsychological endophenotypes in siblings discordant for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Nov 01; 62(9):991-8. PMID: 17585884.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Astrom RL, Wadsworth SJ, DeFries JC. Etiology of the stability of reading difficulties: the longitudinal twin study of reading disabilities. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2007 Jun; 10(3):434-9. PMID: 17564501.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Friend A, DeFries JC, Wadsworth SJ, Olson RK. Genetic and environmental influences on word recognition and spelling deficits as a function of age. Behav Genet. 2007 May; 37(3):477-86. PMID: 17345157.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Shanahan MA, Pennington BF, Yerys BE, Scott A, Boada R, Willcutt EG, Olson RK, DeFries JC. Processing speed deficits in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and reading disability. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2006 Oct; 34(5):585-602. PMID: 16850284.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Bricker JB, Stallings MC, Corley RP, Wadsworth SJ, Bryan A, Timberlake DS, Hewitt JK, Caspi A, Hofer SM, Rhea SA, DeFries JC. Genetic and environmental influences on age at sexual initiation in the Colorado Adoption Project. Behav Genet. 2006 Nov; 36(6):820-32. PMID: 16710776.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Hawke JL, Wadsworth SJ, DeFries JC. Genetic influences on reading difficulties in boys and girls: the Colorado twin study. Dyslexia. 2006 Feb; 12(1):21-9. PMID: 16512171.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Friedman NP, Miyake A, Corley RP, Young SE, Defries JC, Hewitt JK. Not all executive functions are related to intelligence. Psychol Sci. 2006 Feb; 17(2):172-9. PMID: 16466426.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Wadsworth SJ, DeFries JC. Genetic etiology of reading difficulties in boys and girls. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2005 Dec; 8(6):594-601. PMID: 16354501.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Meng H, Smith SD, Hager K, Held M, Liu J, Olson RK, Pennington BF, DeFries JC, Gelernter J, O'Reilly-Pol T, Somlo S, Skudlarski P, Shaywitz SE, Shaywitz BA, Marchione K, Wang Y, Paramasivam M, LoTurco JJ, Page GP, Gruen JR. DCDC2 is associated with reading disability and modulates neuronal development in the brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Nov 22; 102(47):17053-8. PMID: 16278297.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Meng H, Hager K, Held M, Page GP, Olson RK, Pennington BF, DeFries JC, Smith SD, Gruen JR. TDT-association analysis of EKN1 and dyslexia in a Colorado twin cohort. Hum Genet. 2005 Oct; 118(1):87-90. PMID: 16133186.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Gayán J, Willcutt EG, Fisher SE, Francks C, Cardon LR, Olson RK, Pennington BF, Smith SD, Monaco AP, DeFries JC. Bivariate linkage scan for reading disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder localizes pleiotropic loci. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2005 Oct; 46(10):1045-56. PMID: 16178928.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Francks C, Paracchini S, Smith SD, Richardson AJ, Scerri TS, Cardon LR, Marlow AJ, MacPhie IL, Walter J, Pennington BF, Fisher SE, Olson RK, DeFries JC, Stein JF, Monaco AP. A 77-kilobase region of chromosome 6p22.2 is associated with dyslexia in families from the United Kingdom and from the United States. Am J Hum Genet. 2004 Dec; 75(6):1046-58. PMID: 15514892.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Petrill SA, Lipton PA, Hewitt JK, Plomin R, Cherny SS, Corley R, DeFries JC. Genetic and environmental contributions to general cognitive ability through the first 16 years of life. Dev Psychol. 2004 Sep; 40(5):805-12. PMID: 15355167.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Williams RW, Bennett B, Lu L, Gu J, DeFries JC, Carosone-Link PJ, Rikke BA, Belknap JK, Johnson TE. Genetic structure of the LXS panel of recombinant inbred mouse strains: a powerful resource for complex trait analysis. Mamm Genome. 2004 Aug; 15(8):637-47. PMID: 15457343.
      View in: PubMed
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    80. Tiu RD, Wadsworth SJ, Olson RK, DeFries JC. Causal models of reading disability: a twin study. Twin Res. 2004 Jun; 7(3):275-83. PMID: 15193172.
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    81. Deffenbacher KE, Kenyon JB, Hoover DM, Olson RK, Pennington BF, DeFries JC, Smith SD. Refinement of the 6p21.3 quantitative trait locus influencing dyslexia: linkage and association analyses. Hum Genet. 2004 Jul; 115(2):128-38. PMID: 15138886.
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    82. Henderson ND, Turri MG, DeFries JC, Flint J. QTL analysis of multiple behavioral measures of anxiety in mice. Behav Genet. 2004 May; 34(3):267-93. PMID: 14990867.
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    83. Flint J, DeFries JC, Henderson ND. Little epistasis for anxiety-related measures in the DeFries strains of laboratory mice. Mamm Genome. 2004 Feb; 15(2):77-82. PMID: 15058379.
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    84. Turri MG, DeFries JC, Henderson ND, Flint J. Multivariate analysis of quantitative trait loci influencing variation in anxiety-related behavior in laboratory mice. Mamm Genome. 2004 Feb; 15(2):69-76. PMID: 15058378.
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    85. O'Connor TG, Caspi A, Defries JC, Plomin R. Genotype-environment interaction in children's adjustment to parental separation. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2003 Sep; 44(6):849-56. PMID: 12959493.
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    86. Fisher SE, DeFries JC. Developmental dyslexia: genetic dissection of a complex cognitive trait. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2002 Oct; 3(10):767-80. PMID: 12360321.
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    87. Wadsworth SJ, Corley RP, Hewitt JK, Plomin R, DeFries JC. Parent-offspring resemblance for reading performance at 7, 12 and 16 years of age in the Colorado Adoption Project. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2002 Sep; 43(6):769-74. PMID: 12236611.
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    88. Knopik VS, Smith SD, Cardon L, Pennington B, Gayan J, Olson RK, DeFries JC. Differential genetic etiology of reading component processes as a function of IQ. Behav Genet. 2002 May; 32(3):181-98. PMID: 12141780.
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    89. Kaplan DE, Gayán J, Ahn J, Won TW, Pauls D, Olson RK, DeFries JC, Wood F, Pennington BF, Page GP, Smith SD, Gruen JR. Evidence for linkage and association with reading disability on 6p21.3-22. Am J Hum Genet. 2002 May; 70(5):1287-98. PMID: 11951179.
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    90. Willcutt EG, Pennington BF, Smith SD, Cardon LR, Gayán J, Knopik VS, Olson RK, DeFries JC. Quantitative trait locus for reading disability on chromosome 6p is pleiotropic for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Am J Med Genet. 2002 Apr 08; 114(3):260-8. PMID: 11920845.
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    91. Young SE, Smolen A, Corley RP, Krauter KS, DeFries JC, Crowley TJ, Hewitt JK. Dopamine transporter polymorphism associated with externalizing behavior problems in children. Am J Med Genet. 2002 Mar 08; 114(2):144-9. PMID: 11857574.
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    92. Francks C, Fisher SE, Olson RK, Pennington BF, Smith SD, DeFries JC, Monaco AP. Fine mapping of the chromosome 2p12-16 dyslexia susceptibility locus: quantitative association analysis and positional candidate genes SEMA4F and OTX1. Psychiatr Genet. 2002 Mar; 12(1):35-41. PMID: 11901358.
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    93. Fisher SE, Francks C, Marlow AJ, MacPhie IL, Newbury DF, Cardon LR, Ishikawa-Brush Y, Richardson AJ, Talcott JB, Gayán J, Olson RK, Pennington BF, Smith SD, DeFries JC, Stein JF, Monaco AP. Independent genome-wide scans identify a chromosome 18 quantitative-trait locus influencing dyslexia. Nat Genet. 2002 Jan; 30(1):86-91. PMID: 11743577.
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    94. Davis CJ, Gayán J, Knopik VS, Smith SD, Cardon LR, Pennington BF, Olson RK, DeFries JC. Etiology of reading difficulties and rapid naming: the Colorado Twin Study of Reading Disability. Behav Genet. 2001 Nov; 31(6):625-35. PMID: 11838539.
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    95. Compton DL, DeFries JC, Olson RK. Are RAN- and phonological awareness-deficits additive in children with reading disabilities? Dyslexia. 2001 Jul-Sep; 7(3):125-49. PMID: 11765981.
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    96. Turri MG, Henderson ND, DeFries JC, Flint J. Quantitative trait locus mapping in laboratory mice derived from a replicated selection experiment for open-field activity. Genetics. 2001 Jul; 158(3):1217-26. PMID: 11454769.
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    97. Wadsworth SJ, Corley RP, Hewitt JK, Defries JC. Stability of genetic and environmental influences on reading performance at 7, 12, and 16 years of age in the Colorado Adoption Project. Behav Genet. 2001 Jul; 31(4):353-9. PMID: 11720121.
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    98. O'Connor TG, Caspi A, DeFries JC, Plomin R. Are associations between parental divorce and children's adjustment genetically mediated? An adoption study. Dev Psychol. 2000 Jul; 36(4):429-37. PMID: 10902695.
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    99. Willcutt EG, Pennington BF, DeFries JC. Twin study of the etiology of comorbidity between reading disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Am J Med Genet. 2000 Jun 12; 96(3):293-301. PMID: 10898903.
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    100. Davis CJ, Knopik VS, Wadsworth SJ, DeFries JC. Self-reported reading problems in parents of twins with reading difficulties. Twin Res. 2000 Jun; 3(2):88-91. PMID: 10918621.
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    101. Willcutt EG, Pennington BF, DeFries JC. Etiology of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in a community sample of twins with learning difficulties. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2000 Apr; 28(2):149-59. PMID: 10834767.
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    102. Wadsworth SJ, Olson RK, Pennington BF, DeFries JC. Differential genetic etiology of reading disability as a function of IQ. J Learn Disabil. 2000 Mar-Apr; 33(2):192-9. PMID: 15505948.
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    103. Pennington BF, Filipek PA, Lefly D, Chhabildas N, Kennedy DN, Simon JH, Filley CM, Galaburda A, DeFries JC. A twin MRI study of size variations in human brain. J Cogn Neurosci. 2000 Jan; 12(1):223-32. PMID: 10769318.
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    104. Alarcón M, Pennington BF, Filipek PA, DeFries JC. Etiology of neuroanatomical correlates of reading disability. Dev Neuropsychol. 2000; 17(3):339-60. PMID: 11056848.
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    105. Pennington BF, Filipek PA, Lefly D, Churchwell J, Kennedy DN, Simon JH, Filley CM, Galaburda A, Alarcon M, DeFries JC. Brain morphometry in reading-disabled twins. Neurology. 1999 Sep 11; 53(4):723-9. PMID: 10489032.
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    106. Knopik VS, DeFries JC. Etiology of covariation between reading and mathematics performance: a twin study. Twin Res. 1999 Sep; 2(3):226-34. PMID: 10555134.
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    107. Gayán J, Smith SD, Cherny SS, Cardon LR, Fulker DW, Brower AM, Olson RK, Pennington BF, DeFries JC. Quantitative-trait locus for specific language and reading deficits on chromosome 6p. Am J Hum Genet. 1999 Jan; 64(1):157-64. PMID: 9915954.
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    108. Alarcón M, Plomin R, Fulker DW, Corley R, DeFries JC. Multivariate path analysis of specific cognitive abilities data at 12 years of age in the Colorado Adoption Project. Behav Genet. 1998 Jul; 28(4):255-64. PMID: 9803018.
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    109. Plomin R, DeFries JC. The genetics of cognitive abilities and disabilities. Sci Am. 1998 May; 278(5):62-9. PMID: 9569675.
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    110. Gilger JW, Pennington BF, Harbeck RJ, DeFries JC, Kotzin B, Green P, Smith S. A twin and family study of the association between immune system dysfunction and dyslexia using blood serum immunoassay and survey data. Brain Cogn. 1998 Apr; 36(3):310-33. PMID: 9647681.
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    111. Light JG, Defries JC, Olson RK. Multivariate behavioral genetic analysis of achievement and cognitive measures in reading-disabled and control twin pairs. Hum Biol. 1998 Apr; 70(2):215-37. PMID: 9549237.
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    112. Alarcón M, DeFries JC, Light JG, Pennington BF. A twin study of mathematics disability. J Learn Disabil. 1997 Nov-Dec; 30(6):617-23. PMID: 9364899.
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    113. Knopik VS, Alarcón M, DeFries JC. Comorbidity of mathematics and reading deficits: evidence for a genetic etiology. Behav Genet. 1997 Sep; 27(5):447-53. PMID: 9336081.
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    114. Sherman SL, DeFries JC, Gottesman II, Loehlin JC, Meyer JM, Pelias MZ, Rice J, Waldman I. Behavioral genetics '97: ASHG statement. Recent developments in human behavioral genetics: past accomplishments and future directions. Am J Hum Genet. 1997 Jun; 60(6):1265-75. PMID: 9199545.
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    115. Markel PD, Fulker DW, Bennett B, Corley RP, DeFries JC, Erwin VG, Johnson TE. Quantitative trait loci for ethanol sensitivity in the LS x SS recombinant inbred strains: interval mapping. Behav Genet. 1996 Jul; 26(4):447-58. PMID: 8771905.
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    116. Schmitz S, Saudino KJ, Plomin R, Fulker DW, DeFries JC. Genetic and environmental influences on temperament in middle childhood: analyses of teacher and tester ratings. Child Dev. 1996 Apr; 67(2):409-22. PMID: 8625721.
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    117. Knopik VS, Defries JC, Alarcón M. Gender differences in cognitive abilities of opposite-sex and same-sex twin pairs with reading disabilty. Ann Dyslexia. 1996 Jan; 46(1):241-57. PMID: 24234274.
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    118. Flint J, Corley R, DeFries JC, Fulker DW, Gray JA, Miller S, Collins AC. A simple genetic basis for a complex psychological trait in laboratory mice. Science. 1995 Sep 08; 269(5229):1432-5. PMID: 7660127.
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    119. Cardon LR, Smith SD, Fulker DW, Kimberling WJ, Pennington BF, DeFries JC. Quantitative trait locus for reading disability: correction. Science. 1995 Jun 16; 268(5217):1553. PMID: 7777847.
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    120. Cardon LR, Smith SD, Fulker DW, Kimberling WJ, Pennington BF, Defries JC. Response. Science. 1995 May 12; 268(5212):787-8. PMID: 17792159.
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    121. Markel PD, DeFries JC, Johnson TE. Use of repeated measures in an analysis of ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex in inbred long-sleep and short-sleep mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1995 Apr; 19(2):299-304. PMID: 7625561.
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    122. Light JG, DeFries JC. Comorbidity of reading and mathematics disabilities: genetic and environmental etiologies. J Learn Disabil. 1995 Feb; 28(2):96-106. PMID: 7884303.
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    123. Markel PD, DeFries JC, Johnson TE. Ethanol-induced anesthesia in inbred strains of long-sleep and short-sleep mice: a genetic analysis of repeated measures using censored data. Behav Genet. 1995 Jan; 25(1):67-73. PMID: 7755520.
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    124. Casto SD, DeFries JC, Fulker DW. Multivariate genetic analysis of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Revised (WISC-R) factors. Behav Genet. 1995 Jan; 25(1):25-32. PMID: 7755516.
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    125. Alarcón M, DeFries JC, Fulker DW. Etiology of individual differences in reading performance: a test of sex limitation. Behav Genet. 1995 Jan; 25(1):17-23. PMID: 7755515.
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    126. Wadsworth SJ, DeFries JC, Fulker DW, Plomin R. Cognitive ability and academic achievement in the Colorado Adoption Project: a multivariate genetic analysis of parent-offspring and sibling data. Behav Genet. 1995 Jan; 25(1):1-15. PMID: 7755514.
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    127. Smolen A, Marks MJ, DeFries JC, Henderson ND. Individual differences in sensitivity to nicotine in mice: response to six generations of selective breeding. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1994 Nov; 49(3):531-40. PMID: 7862704.
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    128. Cardon LR, Smith SD, Fulker DW, Kimberling WJ, Pennington BF, DeFries JC. Quantitative trait locus for reading disability on chromosome 6. Science. 1994 Oct 14; 266(5183):276-9. PMID: 7939663.
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    129. Gilger JW, Borecki IB, DeFries JC, Pennington BF. Commingling and segregation analysis of reading performance in families of normal reading probands. Behav Genet. 1994 Jul; 24(4):345-55. PMID: 7993313.
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    130. Cherny SS, Fulker DW, Corley RP, Plomin R, DeFries JC. Continuity and change in infant shyness from 14 to 20 months. Behav Genet. 1994 Jul; 24(4):365-79. PMID: 7993315.
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    131. Wadsworth SJ, DeFries JC, Fulker DW. Cognitive abilities of children at 7 and 12 years of age in the Colorado adoption project. J Learn Disabil. 1993 Nov; 26(9):611-5. PMID: 8283131.
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    132. Stevenson J, Pennington BF, Gilger JW, DeFries JC, Gillis JJ. Hyperactivity and spelling disability: testing for shared genetic aetiology. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1993 Oct; 34(7):1137-52. PMID: 8245138.
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    133. Pennington BF, Gilger JW, Olson RK, DeFries JC. The external validity of age- versus IQ-discrepancy definitions of reading disability: lessons from a twin study. J Learn Disabil. 1992 Nov; 25(9):562-73. PMID: 1431540.
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    134. Johnson TE, DeFries JC, Markel PD. Mapping quantitative trait loci for behavioral traits in the mouse. Behav Genet. 1992 Nov; 22(6):635-53. PMID: 1363267.
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    136. Cherny SS, DeFries JC, Fulker DW. Multiple regression analysis of twin data: a model-fitting approach. Behav Genet. 1992 Jul; 22(4):489-97. PMID: 1503550.
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    137. Gillis JJ, Gilger JW, Pennington BF, DeFries JC. Attention deficit disorder in reading-disabled twins: evidence for a genetic etiology. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1992 Jun; 20(3):303-15. PMID: 1377727.
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    138. Cherny SS, Cardon LR, Fulker DW, DeFries JC. Differential heritability across levels of cognitive ability. Behav Genet. 1992 Mar; 22(2):153-62. PMID: 1596255.
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    139. Gilger JW, Pennington BF, DeFries JC. A twin study of the etiology of comorbidity: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and dyslexia. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1992 Mar; 31(2):343-8. PMID: 1564037.
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    162. Vogler GP, DeFries JC. Bivariate path analysis of familial resemblance for reading ability and symbol processing speed. Behav Genet. 1985 Mar; 15(2):111-21. PMID: 3838069.
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    192. Padeh B, Wahlsten D, DeFries JC. Operant discrimination learning and operant bar-pressing rates in inbred and heterogeneous laboratory mice. Behav Genet. 1974 Dec; 4(4):383-93. PMID: 4433313.
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