Colorado PROFILES, The Colorado Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (CCTSI)
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William W Hay Jr.

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of Colorado Denver - Anschutz Medical Campus
DepartmentSOM-PEDS
Phone303/724-1600

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse research activities and funding
    T32HD007186     (HAY, WILLIAM W)Jul 1, 1979 - Apr 30, 2021
    NIH/NICHD
    Training Program in Perinatal Biology and Medicine
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01AM035836     (HAY, WILLIAM W)Sep 1, 1985 - Aug 31, 1988
    NIH/NIADDK
    METABOLIC STUDIES IN DIABETIC PREGNANCY
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01DK035836     (HAY, WILLIAM W)Sep 1, 1985 - Aug 31, 1995
    NIH/NIDDK
    METABOLIC STUDIES IN DIABETIC PREGNANCY
    Role: Principal Investigator

    P50HD020761     (HAY, WILLIAM W)Sep 30, 1985 - Jun 30, 1996
    NIH/NICHD
    METABOLIC REGULATION OF FETAL GROWTH
    Role: Principal Investigator

    P01HD020761     (HAY, WILLIAM W)Sep 30, 1985 - Jun 30, 2001
    NIH/NICHD
    METABOLIC REGULATION OF FETAL GROWTH
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01HL047861     (HAY, WILLIAM W)Feb 1, 1992 - Jan 31, 1995
    NIH/NHLBI
    FETAL LIVER AND PLACENTA--METABOLIC RESPONSES TO HYPOXIA
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01HD028794     (HAY, WILLIAM W)Feb 1, 1992 - Jan 31, 2008
    NIH/NICHD
    Regulation of placental metabolism by glucose supply
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01DK052138     (HAY, WILLIAM W)Sep 9, 1997 - Mar 31, 2007
    NIH/NIDDK
    Fetal Glucose and Amino Acid Deprivation
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01HD042815     (HAY, WILLIAM W)Apr 1, 2002 - Mar 31, 2008
    NIH/NICHD
    Fetal pancreatic development &insulin secretion
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Bourque SL, Rozance PJ, Hay WW. 50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics: Diazoxide Treatment for Idiopathic Hypoglycemia of Infancy. J Pediatr. 2017 Oct; 189:53. PMID: 28947056.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Rozance PJ, Zastoupil L, Wesolowski SR, Goldstrohm DA, Strahan B, Cree-Green M, Sheffield-Moore M, Meschia G, Hay WW, Wilkening RB, Brown LD. Skeletal muscle protein accretion rates and hindlimb growth are reduced in late gestation intrauterine growth-restricted fetal sheep. J Physiol. 2017 Sep 22. PMID: 28940557.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Krebs N, Bagby S, Bhutta ZA, Dewey K, Fall C, Gregory F, Hay W, Rhuman L, Caldwell CW, Thornburg KL. International summit on the nutrition of adolescent girls and young women: consensus statement. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017 Jul; 1400(1):3-7. PMID: 28722768.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Camacho LE, Chen X, Hay WW, Limesand SW. Enhanced insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in young lambs with placental insufficiency-induced intrauterine growth restriction. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2017 Aug 01; 313(2):R101-R109. PMID: 28490449.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Brown LD, Kohn JR, Rozance PJ, Hay WW, Wesolowski SR. Exogenous amino acids suppress glucose oxidation and potentiate hepatic glucose production in late gestation fetal sheep. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2017 May 01; 312(5):R654-R663. PMID: 28179229.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Benjamin JS, Culpepper CB, Brown LD, Wesolowski SR, Jonker SS, Davis MA, Limesand SW, Wilkening RB, Hay WW, Rozance PJ. Chronic anemic hypoxemia attenuates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in fetal sheep. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2017 Apr 01; 312(4):R492-R500. PMID: 28100476.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Qiao L, Wattez JS, Lee S, Nguyen A, Schaack J, Hay WW, Shao J. Adiponectin Deficiency Impairs Maternal Metabolic Adaptation to Pregnancy in Mice. Diabetes. 2017 May; 66(5):1126-1135. PMID: 28073830.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Soto SM, Blake AC, Wesolowski SR, Rozance PJ, Barthel KB, Gao B, Hetrick B, McCurdy CE, Garza NG, Hay WW, Leinwand LA, Friedman JE, Brown LD. Myoblast replication is reduced in the IUGR fetus despite maintained proliferative capacity in vitro. J Endocrinol. 2017 03; 232(3):475-491. PMID: 28053000.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Hay WW. Optimizing nutrition of the preterm infant. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2017 Jan; 19(1):1-21. PMID: 28100316.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Rozance PJ, Hay WW. Modern Management of Preterm Infants Prevents Adverse Developmental Outcomes From Hypoglycemia. Pediatrics. 2016 12; 138(6). PMID: 27940727.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Hay WW, Hendrickson KC. Preterm formula use in the preterm very low birth weight infant. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2017 Feb; 22(1):15-22. PMID: 27595621.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Brown LD, Davis M, Wai S, Wesolowski SR, Hay WW, Limesand SW, Rozance PJ. Chronically Increased Amino Acids Improve Insulin Secretion, Pancreatic Vascularity, and Islet Size in Growth-Restricted Fetal Sheep. Endocrinology. 2016 Oct; 157(10):3788-3799. PMID: 27501184.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Qiao L, Wattez JS, Lee S, Guo Z, Schaack J, Hay WW, Zita MM, Parast M, Shao J. Knockout maternal adiponectin increases fetal growth in mice: potential role for trophoblast IGFBP-1. Diabetologia. 2016 Nov; 59(11):2417-2425. PMID: 27495989.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Hay WW, Ziegler EE. Growth failure among preterm infants due to insufficient protein is not innocuous and must be prevented. J Perinatol. 2016 Jul; 36(7):500-2. PMID: 27339826.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Culpepper C, Wesolowski SR, Benjamin J, Bruce JL, Brown LD, Jonker SS, Wilkening RB, Hay WW, Rozance PJ. Chronic anemic hypoxemia increases plasma glucagon and hepatic PCK1 mRNA in late-gestation fetal sheep. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2016 Jul 01; 311(1):R200-8. PMID: 27170658; PMCID: PMC4967231 [Available on 07/01/17].
    16. Hay WW, Brown LD, Rozance PJ, Wesolowski SR, Limesand SW. Challenges in nourishing the intrauterine growth-restricted foetus - Lessons learned from studies in the intrauterine growth-restricted foetal sheep. Acta Paediatr. 2016 Aug; 105(8):881-9. PMID: 27028695.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Rozance PJ, Hay WW. New approaches to management of neonatal hypoglycemia. Matern Health Neonatol Perinatol. 2016; 2:3. PMID: 27168942; PMCID: PMC4862061.
    18. Ryan AS, Hay WW. Challenges of infant nutrition research: a commentary. Nutr J. 2016 Apr 22; 15:42. PMID: 27103229; PMCID: PMC4840881.
    19. Brown LD, Wesolowski SR, Kailey J, Bourque S, Wilson A, Andrews SE, Hay WW, Rozance PJ. Chronic Hyperinsulinemia Increases Myoblast Proliferation in Fetal Sheep Skeletal Muscle. Endocrinology. 2016 Jun; 157(6):2447-60. PMID: 27049667; PMCID: PMC4891788 [Available on 06/01/17].
    20. Brown LD, Hay WW. Impact of placental insufficiency on fetal skeletal muscle growth. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016 Nov 05; 435:69-77. PMID: 26994511; PMCID: PMC5014698 [Available on 11/05/17].
    21. Cormack BE, Embleton ND, van Goudoever JB, Hay WW, Bloomfield FH. Comparing apples with apples: it is time for standardized reporting of neonatal nutrition and growth studies. Pediatr Res. 2016 Jun; 79(6):810-20. PMID: 26866908.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Barry JS, Rozance PJ, Brown LD, Anthony RV, Thornburg KL, Hay WW. Increased fetal myocardial sensitivity to insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism during ovine fetal growth restriction. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2016 Apr; 241(8):839-47. PMID: 26873920.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Rozance PJ, Hay WW. Pancreatic islet hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor A signaling in growth restricted fetuses. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016 Nov 05; 435:78-84. PMID: 26820125; PMCID: PMC4959995 [Available on 11/05/17].
    24. Raiten DJ, Steiber AL, Carlson SE, Griffin I, Anderson D, Hay WW, Robins S, Neu J, Georgieff MK, Groh-Wargo S, Fenton TR. Working group reports: evaluation of the evidence to support practice guidelines for nutritional care of preterm infants-the Pre-B Project. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 02; 103(2):648S-78S. PMID: 26791182.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Wesolowski SR, Hay WW. Role of placental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction on the activation of fetal hepatic glucose production. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016 Nov 05; 435:61-68. PMID: 26723529; PMCID: PMC4921201 [Available on 11/05/17].
    26. Brown LD, Rozance PJ, Bruce JL, Friedman JE, Hay WW, Wesolowski SR. Limited capacity for glucose oxidation in fetal sheep with intrauterine growth restriction. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2015 Oct 15; 309(8):R920-8. PMID: 26224688; PMCID: PMC4666949 [Available on 10/15/16].
    27. Sectish TC, Hay WW, Mahan JD, Mendoza FS, Spector ND, Stanton B, Szilagyi PG, Turner TL, Walker LR, Slaw K. Blueprint for Action: Visioning Summit on the Future of the Workforce in Pediatrics. Pediatrics. 2015 Jul; 136(1):161-9. PMID: 26034250.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Qiao L, Guo Z, Bosco C, Guidotti S, Wang Y, Wang M, Parast M, Schaack J, Hay WW, Moore TR, Shao J. Maternal High-Fat Feeding Increases Placental Lipoprotein Lipase Activity by Reducing SIRT1 Expression in Mice. Diabetes. 2015 Sep; 64(9):3111-20. PMID: 25948680; PMCID: PMC4542442.
    29. Andrews SE, Brown LD, Thorn SR, Limesand SW, Davis M, Hay WW, Rozance PJ. Increased adrenergic signaling is responsible for decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the chronically hyperinsulinemic ovine fetus. Endocrinology. 2015 Jan; 156(1):367-76. PMID: 25343274; PMCID: PMC4272391.
    30. Houin SS, Rozance PJ, Brown LD, Hay WW, Wilkening RB, Thorn SR. Coordinated changes in hepatic amino acid metabolism and endocrine signals support hepatic glucose production during fetal hypoglycemia. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Feb 15; 308(4):E306-14. PMID: 25516551; PMCID: PMC4329495.
    31. Rozance PJ, Anderson M, Martinez M, Fahy A, Macko AR, Kailey J, Seedorf GJ, Abman SH, Hay WW, Limesand SW. Placental insufficiency decreases pancreatic vascularity and disrupts hepatocyte growth factor signaling in the pancreatic islet endothelial cell in fetal sheep. Diabetes. 2015 Feb; 64(2):555-64. PMID: 25249573; PMCID: PMC4303968.
    32. Brown LD, Hendrickson K, Masor ML, Hay WW. High-protein formulas: evidence for use in preterm infants. Clin Perinatol. 2014 Jun; 41(2):383-403. PMID: 24873839.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Hay WW, Brown LD, Denne SC. Energy requirements, protein-energy metabolism and balance, and carbohydrates in preterm infants. World Rev Nutr Diet. 2014; 110:64-81. PMID: 24751622.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Hay WW. Aggressive Nutrition of the Preterm Infant. Curr Pediatr Rep. 2013 Dec; 1(4). PMID: 24386613.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Brown LD, Hay WW. The nutritional dilemma for preterm infants: how to promote neurocognitive development and linear growth, but reduce the risk of obesity. J Pediatr. 2013 Dec; 163(6):1543-5. PMID: 24018016.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Denne SC, Hay WW. Advocacy for research that benefits children: An obligation of pediatricians and pediatric investigators. JAMA Pediatr. 2013 Sep; 167(9):792-4. PMID: 23836342.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Limesand SW, Rozance PJ, Macko AR, Anderson MJ, Kelly AC, Hay WW. Reductions in insulin concentrations and ß-cell mass precede growth restriction in sheep fetuses with placental insufficiency. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Mar 01; 304(5):E516-23. PMID: 23277186; PMCID: PMC3602661.
    38. Gadhia MM, Maliszewski AM, O'Meara MC, Thorn SR, Lavezzi JR, Limesand SW, Hay WW, Brown LD, Rozance PJ. Increased amino acid supply potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion but does not increase ß-cell mass in fetal sheep. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Feb 15; 304(4):E352-62. PMID: 23211516; PMCID: PMC3566506.
    39. Lavezzi JR, Thorn SR, O'Meara MC, LoTurco D, Brown LD, Hay WW, Rozance PJ. Increased fetal insulin concentrations for one week fail to improve insulin secretion or ß-cell mass in fetal sheep with chronically reduced glucose supply. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2013 Jan 01; 304(1):R50-8. PMID: 23135788; PMCID: PMC3543651.
    40. Frost MS, Zehri AH, Limesand SW, Hay WW, Rozance PJ. Differential effects of chronic pulsatile versus chronic constant maternal hyperglycemia on fetal pancreatic ß-cells. J Pregnancy. 2012; 2012:812094. PMID: 23133755; PMCID: PMC3486011.
    41. Thorn SR, Sekar SM, Lavezzi JR, O'Meara MC, Brown LD, Hay WW, Rozance PJ. A physiological increase in insulin suppresses gluconeogenic gene activation in fetal sheep with sustained hypoglycemia. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2012 Oct 15; 303(8):R861-9. PMID: 22933022; PMCID: PMC3469666.
    42. Thorn SR, Brown LD, Rozance PJ, Hay WW, Friedman JE. Increased hepatic glucose production in fetal sheep with intrauterine growth restriction is not suppressed by insulin. Diabetes. 2013 Jan; 62(1):65-73. PMID: 22933111; PMCID: PMC3526037.
    43. Qiao L, Yoo HS, Madon A, Kinney B, Hay WW, Shao J. Adiponectin enhances mouse fetal fat deposition. Diabetes. 2012 Dec; 61(12):3199-207. PMID: 22872236; PMCID: PMC3501876.
    44. Rozance PJ, Hay WW. Neonatal hypoglycemia--answers, but more questions. J Pediatr. 2012 Nov; 161(5):775-6. PMID: 22809663; PMCID: PMC3688464.
    45. Brown LD, Rozance PJ, Thorn SR, Friedman JE, Hay WW. Acute supplementation of amino acids increases net protein accretion in IUGR fetal sheep. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Aug 01; 303(3):E352-64. PMID: 22649066; PMCID: PMC3423121.
    46. Chen X, Rozance PJ, Hay WW, Limesand SW. Insulin-like growth factor and fibroblast growth factor expression profiles in growth-restricted fetal sheep pancreas. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2012 May; 237(5):524-9. PMID: 22581814; PMCID: PMC3404611.
    47. Hay WW. Care of the infant of the diabetic mother. Curr Diab Rep. 2012 Feb; 12(1):4-15. PMID: 22094826.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Higgins RD, Devaskar S, Hay WW, Ehrenkranz RA, Greer FR, Kennedy K, Meier P, Papile L, Sherman MP. Executive summary of the workshop "Nutritional Challenges in the High Risk Infant". J Pediatr. 2012 Mar; 160(3):511-6. PMID: 22240111; PMCID: PMC4530452.
    49. Thorn SR, Rozance PJ, Brown LD, Hay WW. The intrauterine growth restriction phenotype: fetal adaptations and potential implications for later life insulin resistance and diabetes. Semin Reprod Med. 2011 May; 29(3):225-36. PMID: 21710398; PMCID: PMC3216466.
    50. Green AS, Macko AR, Rozance PJ, Yates DT, Chen X, Hay WW, Limesand SW. Characterization of glucose-insulin responsiveness and impact of fetal number and sex difference on insulin response in the sheep fetus. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011 May; 300(5):E817-23. PMID: 21343544; PMCID: PMC3093975.
    51. Hay WW, Thureen P. Protein for preterm infants: how much is needed? How much is enough? How much is too much? Pediatr Neonatol. 2010 Aug; 51(4):198-207. PMID: 20713283.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Rozance PJ, Hay WW. Describing hypoglycemia--definition or operational threshold? Early Hum Dev. 2010 May; 86(5):275-80. PMID: 20554129; PMCID: PMC2900507.
    53. Hay WW, Rozance PJ. Continuous glucose monitoring for diagnosis and treatment of neonatal hypoglycemia. J Pediatr. 2010 Aug; 157(2):180-2. PMID: 20472249; PMCID: PMC2905477.
    54. Hay WW, Gitterman DP, Williams DA, Dover GJ, Sectish TC, Schleiss MR. Child health research funding and policy: imperatives and investments for a healthier world. Pediatrics. 2010 Jun; 125(6):1259-65. PMID: 20457684; PMCID: PMC3857014.
    55. Hay WW, Raju TN, Higgins RD, Kalhan SC, Devaskar SU. Knowledge gaps and research needs for understanding and treating neonatal hypoglycemia: workshop report from Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. J Pediatr. 2009 Nov; 155(5):612-7. PMID: 19840614; PMCID: PMC3857033.
    56. Rozance PJ, Crispo MM, Barry JS, O'Meara MC, Frost MS, Hansen KC, Hay WW, Brown LD. Prolonged maternal amino acid infusion in late-gestation pregnant sheep increases fetal amino acid oxidation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Sep; 297(3):E638-46. PMID: 19602583; PMCID: PMC2739698.
    57. Hay WW. Optimizing protein intake in preterm infants. J Perinatol. 2009 Jul; 29(7):465-6. PMID: 19556981; PMCID: PMC2834503.
    58. Marlow N, Hay WW. Pediatric Research--the evolution continues. Pediatr Res. 2009 Jul; 66(1):1. PMID: 19542827.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Thorn SR, Regnault TR, Brown LD, Rozance PJ, Keng J, Roper M, Wilkening RB, Hay WW, Friedman JE. Intrauterine growth restriction increases fetal hepatic gluconeogenic capacity and reduces messenger ribonucleic acid translation initiation and nutrient sensing in fetal liver and skeletal muscle. Endocrinology. 2009 Jul; 150(7):3021-30. PMID: 19342452; PMCID: PMC2703533.
    60. Limesand SW, Rozance PJ, Brown LD, Hay WW. Effects of chronic hypoglycemia and euglycemic correction on lysine metabolism in fetal sheep. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Apr; 296(4):E879-87. PMID: 19190258; PMCID: PMC2670627.
    61. Rozance PJ, Limesand SW, Barry JS, Brown LD, Hay WW. Glucose replacement to euglycemia causes hypoxia, acidosis, and decreased insulin secretion in fetal sheep with intrauterine growth restriction. Pediatr Res. 2009 Jan; 65(1):72-8. PMID: 18704001; PMCID: PMC2678008.
    62. Hay WW. American Pediatric Society presidential address 2008: research in early life - benefit and promise. Pediatr Res. 2009 Jan; 65(1):117-22. PMID: 18787504; PMCID: PMC2694512.
    63. Hay WW, McGowan JE, Kalhan S, Adamkin D, Hawdon JM, Williams AF, Rosenbloom L, Ward-Platt MP. How low can I go? The impact of hypoglycemia on the immature brain. Pediatrics. 2008 Dec; 122(6):1411-2; author reply 1412. PMID: 19047268.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Manco-Johnson MJ, Hacker MR, Jacobson LJ, Hay WW. Pharmacokinetics of protein C and antithrombin in the fetal lamb: a model to predict human neonatal replacement dosing. Neonatology. 2009; 95(4):279-85. PMID: 19039246; PMCID: PMC3701438.
    65. Gitterman DP, Hay WW. That sinking feeling, again? The state of National Institutes of Health pediatric research funding, fiscal year 1992-2010. Pediatr Res. 2008 Nov; 64(5):462-9. PMID: 18787420.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Brown LD, Rozance PJ, Barry JS, Friedman JE, Hay WW. Insulin is required for amino acid stimulation of dual pathways for translational control in skeletal muscle in the late-gestation ovine fetus. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Jan; 296(1):E56-63. PMID: 18940943; PMCID: PMC2636989.
    67. Hay WW. Strategies for feeding the preterm infant. Neonatology. 2008; 94(4):245-54. PMID: 18836284; PMCID: PMC2912291.
    68. Genel M, McCaffree MA, Hendricks K, Dennery PA, Hay WW, Stanton B, Szilagyi PG, Jenkins RR. A National Agenda for America's Children and Adolescents in 2008: recommendations from the 15th Annual Public Policy Plenary Symposium, annual meeting of the Pediatric Academic Societies, May 3, 2008. Pediatrics. 2008 Oct; 122(4):843-9. PMID: 18829810.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Rozance PJ, Limesand SW, Barry JS, Brown LD, Thorn SR, LoTurco D, Regnault TR, Friedman JE, Hay WW. Chronic late-gestation hypoglycemia upregulates hepatic PEPCK associated with increased PGC1alpha mRNA and phosphorylated CREB in fetal sheep. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Feb; 294(2):E365-70. PMID: 18056789; PMCID: PMC3857025.
    70. Hay WW. Nutrient supplies for optimal health in preterm infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2007 Dec; 45 Suppl 3:S163-9. PMID: 18185085.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Limesand SW, Rozance PJ, Smith D, Hay WW. Increased insulin sensitivity and maintenance of glucose utilization rates in fetal sheep with placental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Dec; 293(6):E1716-25. PMID: 17895285.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Wallace JM, Milne JS, Aitken RP, Hay WW. Sensitivity to metabolic signals in late-gestation growth-restricted fetuses from rapidly growing adolescent sheep. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Nov; 293(5):E1233-41. PMID: 17711986.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Raiten DJ, Kalhan SC, Hay WW. Maternal nutrition and optimal infant feeding practices: executive summary. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Feb; 85(2):577S-583S. PMID: 17284759.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Rozance PJ, Limesand SW, Zerbe GO, Hay WW. Chronic fetal hypoglycemia inhibits the later steps of stimulus-secretion coupling in pancreatic beta-cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 May; 292(5):E1256-64. PMID: 17213478.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Brown LD, Hay WW. Effect of hyperinsulinemia on amino acid utilization and oxidation independent of glucose metabolism in the ovine fetus. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Dec; 291(6):E1333-40. PMID: 16868230.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Hay WW. Early postnatal nutritional requirements of the very preterm infant based on a presentation at the NICHD-AAP workshop on research in neonatology. J Perinatol. 2006 Jul; 26 Suppl 2:S13-8. PMID: 16801962.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Barry JS, Davidsen ML, Limesand SW, Galan HL, Friedman JE, Regnault TR, Hay WW. Developmental changes in ovine myocardial glucose transporters and insulin signaling following hyperthermia-induced intrauterine fetal growth restriction. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2006 May; 231(5):566-75. PMID: 16636305.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Rozance PJ, Limesand SW, Hay WW. Decreased nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion in chronically hypoglycemic late-gestation fetal sheep is due to an intrinsic islet defect. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Aug; 291(2):E404-11. PMID: 16569758.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Rozance PJ, Hay WW. Hypoglycemia in newborn infants: Features associated with adverse outcomes. Biol Neonate. 2006; 90(2):74-86. PMID: 16534190.
      View in: PubMed
    80. Hay WW, Thureen PJ. Early postnatal administration of intravenous amino acids to preterm, extremely low birth weight infants. J Pediatr. 2006 Mar; 148(3):291-4. PMID: 16615952.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Hay WW. Recent observations on the regulation of fetal metabolism by glucose. J Physiol. 2006 Apr 01; 572(Pt 1):17-24. PMID: 16455683; PMCID: PMC1779657.
    82. Wallace JM, Luther JS, Milne JS, Aitken RP, Redmer DA, Reynolds LP, Hay WW. Nutritional modulation of adolescent pregnancy outcome -- a review. Placenta. 2006 Apr; 27 Suppl A:S61-8. PMID: 16442614.
      View in: PubMed
    83. Hay WW. Placental-fetal glucose exchange and fetal glucose metabolism. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2006; 117:321-39; discussion 339-40. PMID: 18528484; PMCID: PMC1500912.
    84. Regnault TR, Hay WW. In vivo techniques for studying fetoplacental nutrient uptake, metabolism, and transport. Methods Mol Med. 2006; 122:207-24. PMID: 16511983.
      View in: PubMed
    85. Limesand SW, Rozance PJ, Zerbe GO, Hutton JC, Hay WW. Attenuated insulin release and storage in fetal sheep pancreatic islets with intrauterine growth restriction. Endocrinology. 2006 Mar; 147(3):1488-97. PMID: 16339204.
      View in: PubMed
    86. Hay WW. Nutritional requirements of the very preterm infant. Acta Paediatr Suppl. 2005 Oct; 94(449):37-46. PMID: 16214765.
      View in: PubMed
    87. Hay WW. Intravenous nutrition of the very preterm neonate. Acta Paediatr Suppl. 2005 Oct; 94(449):47-56. PMID: 16214766.
      View in: PubMed
    88. Regnault TR, Friedman JE, Wilkening RB, Anthony RV, Hay WW. Fetoplacental transport and utilization of amino acids in IUGR--a review. Placenta. 2005 Apr; 26 Suppl A:S52-62. PMID: 15837069.
      View in: PubMed
    89. Wallace JM, Regnault TR, Limesand SW, Hay WW, Anthony RV. Investigating the causes of low birth weight in contrasting ovine paradigms. J Physiol. 2005 May 15; 565(Pt 1):19-26. PMID: 15774527; PMCID: PMC1464509.
    90. Limesand SW, Jensen J, Hutton JC, Hay WW. Diminished beta-cell replication contributes to reduced beta-cell mass in fetal sheep with intrauterine growth restriction. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005 May; 288(5):R1297-305. PMID: 15650129.
      View in: PubMed
    91. Magness RR, Reynolds LP, Hay WW. Endothelium focus issue: molecular and cellular signaling in the perinatal cardiovascular system. Endothelium. 2005 Jan-Apr; 12(1-2):3-4. PMID: 16036311.
      View in: PubMed
    92. Wooding FB, Fowden AL, Bell AW, Ehrhardt RA, Limesand SW, Hay WW. Localisation of glucose transport in the ruminant placenta: implications for sequential use of transporter isoforms. Placenta. 2005 Sep-Oct; 26(8-9):626-40. PMID: 16085042.
      View in: PubMed
    93. Anderson MS, Thamotharan M, Kao D, Devaskar SU, Qiao L, Friedman JE, Hay WW. Effects of acute hyperinsulinemia on insulin signal transduction and glucose transporters in ovine fetal skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005 Feb; 288(2):R473-81. PMID: 15539611.
      View in: PubMed
    94. Wallace JM, Aitken RP, Milne JS, Hay WW. Nutritionally mediated placental growth restriction in the growing adolescent: consequences for the fetus. Biol Reprod. 2004 Oct; 71(4):1055-62. PMID: 15201203.
      View in: PubMed
    95. Limesand SW, Regnault TR, Hay WW. Characterization of glucose transporter 8 (GLUT8) in the ovine placenta of normal and growth restricted fetuses. Placenta. 2004 Jan; 25(1):70-7. PMID: 15013641.
      View in: PubMed
    96. Thureen PJ, Melara D, Fennessey PV, Hay WW. Effect of low versus high intravenous amino acid intake on very low birth weight infants in the early neonatal period. Pediatr Res. 2003 Jan; 53(1):24-32. PMID: 12508078.
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    97. Limesand SW, Hay WW. Adaptation of ovine fetal pancreatic insulin secretion to chronic hypoglycaemia and euglycaemic correction. J Physiol. 2003 Feb 15; 547(Pt 1):95-105. PMID: 12562941; PMCID: PMC2342612.
    98. Manco-Johnson MJ, Jacobson LJ, Hacker MR, Townsend SF, Murphy J, Hay W. Development of coagulation regulatory proteins in the fetal and neonatal lamb. Pediatr Res. 2002 Oct; 52(4):580-8. PMID: 12357054.
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    99. Wallace JM, Bourke DA, Aitken RP, Milne JS, Hay WW. Placental glucose transport in growth-restricted pregnancies induced by overnourishing adolescent sheep. J Physiol. 2003 Feb 15; 547(Pt 1):85-94. PMID: 12562948; PMCID: PMC2342623.
    100. Hay WW, Rodden DJ, Collins SM, Melara DL, Hale KA, Fashaw LM. Reliability of conventional and new pulse oximetry in neonatal patients. J Perinatol. 2002 Jul-Aug; 22(5):360-6. PMID: 12082469.
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    101. Wallace JM, Bourke DA, Aitken RP, Leitch N, Hay WW. Blood flows and nutrient uptakes in growth-restricted pregnancies induced by overnourishing adolescent sheep. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2002 Apr; 282(4):R1027-36. PMID: 11893606.
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    102. Devaskar SU, Anthony R, Hay W. Ontogeny and insulin regulation of fetal ovine white adipose tissue leptin expression. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2002 Feb; 282(2):R431-8. PMID: 11792652.
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    103. Anderson MS, Flowers-Ziegler J, Das UG, Hay WW, Devaskar SU. Glucose transporter protein responses to selective hyperglycemia or hyperinsulinemia in fetal sheep. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001 Nov; 281(5):R1545-52. PMID: 11641127.
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    104. Thureen PJ, Hay WW. Early aggressive nutrition in preterm infants. Semin Neonatol. 2001 Oct; 6(5):403-15. PMID: 11988030.
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    105. Anderson MS, He J, Flowers-Ziegler J, Devaskar SU, Hay WW. Effects of selective hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia on glucose transporters in fetal ovine skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001 Oct; 281(4):R1256-63. PMID: 11557634.
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    106. Stephens E, Thureen PJ, Goalstone ML, Anderson MS, Leitner JW, Hay WW, Draznin B. Fetal hyperinsulinemia increases farnesylation of p21 Ras in fetal tissues. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Aug; 281(2):E217-23. PMID: 11440896.
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    107. Thureen PJ, Padbury JF, Hay WW. The effect of maternal hypoaminoacidaemia on placental uptake and transport of amino acids in pregnant sheep. Placenta. 2001 Feb-Mar; 22(2-3):162-70. PMID: 11170820.
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    108. Thureen PJ, Scheer B, Anderson SM, Tooze JA, Young DA, Hay WW. Effect of hyperinsulinemia on amino acid utilization in the ovine fetus. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Dec; 279(6):E1294-304. PMID: 11093917.
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    109. Das UG, He J, Ehrhardt RA, Hay WW, Devaskar SU. Time-dependent physiological regulation of ovine placental GLUT-3 glucose transporter protein. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2000 Dec; 279(6):R2252-61. PMID: 11080093.
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    110. Thureen PJ, Anderson SM, Hay WW. Regulation of uterine and umbilical amino acid uptakes by maternal amino acid concentrations. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2000 Sep; 279(3):R849-59. PMID: 10956242.
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    111. Hay WW. Pulse oximetry: as good as it gets? J Perinatol. 2000 Apr-May; 20(3):181-3. PMID: 10802844.
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    112. Thureen PJ, Hay WW. Intravenous nutrition and postnatal growth of the micropremie. Clin Perinatol. 2000 Mar; 27(1):197-219. PMID: 10690572.
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    113. Hay WW. Nutrient-gene interactions during intrauterine life and lactation. Nutrition. 2000 Mar; 16(3):226-8. PMID: 10705079.
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    114. Hay WW, Bell EF. Oxygen therapy, oxygen toxicity, and the STOP-ROP trial. Pediatrics. 2000 Feb; 105(2):424-5. PMID: 10654967.
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    115. Hay WW, Lucas A, Heird WC, Ziegler E, Levin E, Grave GD, Catz CS, Yaffe SJ. Workshop summary: nutrition of the extremely low birth weight infant. Pediatrics. 1999 Dec; 104(6):1360-8. PMID: 10585989.
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    116. Aldoretta PW, Hay WW. Effect of glucose supply on ovine uteroplacental glucose metabolism. Am J Physiol. 1999 Oct; 277(4 Pt 2):R947-58. PMID: 10516231.
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    117. Stearns MR, Jackson CG, Landauer JA, Frye SD, Hay WW, Burke TJ. Small for gestational age: a new insight? Med Hypotheses. 1999 Sep; 53(3):186-9. PMID: 10580521.
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    118. Hay WW. Nutrition-gene interactions during intrauterine life and lactation. Nutr Rev. 1999 May; 57(5 Pt 2):S20-9; discussion S29-30. PMID: 10391022.
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    119. Das UG, Schroeder RE, Hay WW, Devaskar SU. Time-dependent and tissue-specific effects of circulating glucose on fetal ovine glucose transporters. Am J Physiol. 1999 Mar; 276(3 Pt 2):R809-17. PMID: 10070142.
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    120. Hay WW, Zakevich E. Cesare Emiliani (1922-1995): the founder of paleoceanography. Int Microbiol. 1999 Mar; 2(1):52-4. PMID: 10943392.
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    121. DeMarie MP, Hoffenberg A, Biggerstaff SL, Jeffers BW, Hay WW, Thureen PJ. Determinants of energy expenditure in ventilated preterm infants. J Perinat Med. 1999; 27(6):465-72. PMID: 10732305.
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    122. Bell AW, Hay WW, Ehrhardt RA. Placental transport of nutrients and its implications for fetal growth. J Reprod Fertil Suppl. 1999; 54:401-10. PMID: 10692871.
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    123. Thureen PJ, Anderson AH, Baron KA, Melara DL, Hay WW, Fennessey PV. Protein balance in the first week of life in ventilated neonates receiving parenteral nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Nov; 68(5):1128-35. PMID: 9808233.
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    124. Brockway J, Hay WW. Prediction of arterial partial pressure of oxygen with pulse oxygen saturation measurements. J Pediatr. 1998 Jul; 133(1):63-6. PMID: 9672512.
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    125. Thureen PJ, Phillips RE, Baron KA, DeMarie MP, Hay WW. Direct measurement of the energy expenditure of physical activity in preterm infants. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1998 Jul; 85(1):223-30. PMID: 9655779.
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    126. Hay WW. Nutrient and metabolic needs of the fetus and very small infant: a comparative approach. Biochem Soc Trans. 1998 May; 26(2):75-8. PMID: 9649723.
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    127. Hay WW. Prologue: placental-fetal metabolic inter-relationships. Biochem Soc Trans. 1998 May; 26(2):67-9. PMID: 9649721.
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    128. Das UG, Sadiq HF, Soares MJ, Hay WW, Devaskar SU. Time-dependent physiological regulation of rodent and ovine placental glucose transporter (GLUT-1) protein. Am J Physiol. 1998 Feb; 274(2 Pt 2):R339-47. PMID: 9486290.
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    129. Aldoretta PW, Carver TD, Hay WW. Maturation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in fetal sheep. Biol Neonate. 1998; 73(6):375-86. PMID: 9618055.
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    130. Young DA, Zerbe GO, Hay WW. Fieller's theorem, Scheffé simultaneous confidence intervals, and ratios of parameters of linear and nonlinear mixed-effects models. Biometrics. 1997 Sep; 53(3):838-47. PMID: 9290217.
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    131. Hay WW, Catz CS, Grave GD, Yaffe SJ. Workshop summary: fetal growth: its regulation and disorders. Pediatrics. 1997 Apr; 99(4):585-91. PMID: 9093303.
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    132. Gresores A, Anderson S, Hood D, Zerbe GO, Hay WW. Separate and joint effects of arginine and glucose on ovine fetal insulin secretion. Am J Physiol. 1997 Jan; 272(1 Pt 1):E68-73. PMID: 9038853.
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    133. Carver TD, Quick AA, Teng CC, Pike AW, Fennessey PV, Hay WW. Leucine metabolism in chronically hypoglycemic hypoinsulinemic growth-restricted fetal sheep. Am J Physiol. 1997 Jan; 272(1 Pt 1):E107-17. PMID: 9038859.
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    134. Thureen PJ, Phillips RE, DeMarie MP, Hoffenberg A, Bronstein MN, Spedale SB, Hay WW. Technical and methodologic considerations for performance of indirect calorimetry in ventilated and nonventilated preterm infants. Crit Care Med. 1997 Jan; 25(1):171-80. PMID: 8989195.
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    135. Thureen PJ, Hay WW. Advice for selected breast-feeding issues. Compr Ther. 1996 Dec; 22(12):802-5. PMID: 9030460.
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    136. Carver TD, Anderson SM, Aldoretta PW, Hay WW. Effect of low-level basal plus marked "pulsatile" hyperglycemia on insulin secretion in fetal sheep. Am J Physiol. 1996 Nov; 271(5 Pt 1):E865-71. PMID: 8944673.
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    137. Hirst K, Zerbe GO, Hay WW. A generalized Michaelis-Menten response surface. Stat Med. 1996 Oct 15; 15(19):2107-19. PMID: 8896143.
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    138. Hay WW. Assessing the effect of disease on nutrition of the preterm infant. Clin Biochem. 1996 Oct; 29(5):399-417. PMID: 8884061.
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    139. McGowan JE, Aldoretta PW, Hay WW. Contribution of fructose and lactate produced in placenta to calculation of fetal glucose oxidation rate. Am J Physiol. 1995 Nov; 269(5 Pt 1):E834-9. PMID: 7491933.
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    140. Carver TD, Anderson SM, Aldoretta PA, Esler AL, Hay WW. Glucose suppression of insulin secretion in chronically hyperglycemic fetal sheep. Pediatr Res. 1995 Nov; 38(5):754-62. PMID: 8552445.
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    141. Turbow RM, Curran-Everett D, Hay WW, Jones MD. Cerebral lactate metabolism in near-term fetal sheep. Am J Physiol. 1995 Oct; 269(4 Pt 2):R938-42. PMID: 7485614.
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    142. Carver TD, Hay WW. Uteroplacental carbon substrate metabolism and O2 consumption after long-term hypoglycemia in pregnant sheep. Am J Physiol. 1995 Aug; 269(2 Pt 1):E299-308. PMID: 7653547.
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    143. Bzoskie L, Blount L, Kashiwai K, Tseng YT, Hay WW, Padbury JF. Placental norepinephrine clearance: in vivo measurement and physiological role. Am J Physiol. 1995 Jul; 269(1 Pt 1):E145-9. PMID: 7631769.
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    144. Challis JR, Andres SF, Catz CS, Fisher SJ, Hay WW, Hunt JS, Illsley NP, Thornburg KL. Conference report: placental growth and function. Placenta. 1995 Jul; 16(5):471-5. PMID: 7479619.
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    145. Manco-Johnson MJ, Spedale S, Peters M, Townsend SF, Jacobson LJ, Christian J, Krugman SD, Hay WW, Sparks JW. Identification of a unique form of protein C in the ovine fetus: developmentally linked transition to the adult form. Pediatr Res. 1995 Mar; 37(3):365-72. PMID: 7784146.
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    146. Aldoretta PW, Hay WW. Metabolic substrates for fetal energy metabolism and growth. Clin Perinatol. 1995 Mar; 22(1):15-36. PMID: 7781249.
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    147. Hay WW. Regulation of placental metabolism by glucose supply. Reprod Fertil Dev. 1995; 7(3):365-75. PMID: 8606945.
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    148. Hay WW. Metabolic interrelationships of placenta and fetus. Placenta. 1995 Jan; 16(1):19-30. PMID: 7716125.
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    149. Hay WW. Placental supply of energy and protein substrates to the fetus. Acta Paediatr Suppl. 1994 Dec; 405:13-9. PMID: 7734785.
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    150. Aldoretta PW, Carver TD, Hay WW. Ovine uteroplacental glucose and oxygen metabolism in relation to chronic changes in maternal and fetal glucose concentrations. Placenta. 1994 Oct; 15(7):753-64. PMID: 7838831.
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    151. Hay WW. Nutritional requirements of extremely low birthweight infants. Acta Paediatr Suppl. 1994 Sep; 402:94-9. PMID: 7841630.
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    152. Manco-Johnson MJ, Carver T, Jacobson LJ, Townsend SF, Hay WW. Hyperglycemia-induced hyperinsulinemia decreases maternal and fetal plasma protein C concentration during ovine gestation. Pediatr Res. 1994 Sep; 36(3):293-9. PMID: 7808824.
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    153. Lawler-Heavner J, Cruickshanks KJ, Hay WW, Gay EC, Hamman RF. Birth size and risk of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1994 Jul; 24(3):153-9. PMID: 7988346.
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    154. Hay WW. Placental transport of nutrients to the fetus. Horm Res. 1994; 42(4-5):215-22. PMID: 7868076.
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    155. Neville MC, Casey C, Hay WW. Endocrine regulation of nutrient flux in the lactating woman. Do the mechanisms differ from pregnancy? Adv Exp Med Biol. 1994; 352:85-98. PMID: 7832061.
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    156. Molina RD, Carver TD, Hay WW. Ontogeny of insulin effect in fetal sheep. Pediatr Res. 1993 Nov; 34(5):654-60. PMID: 8284105.
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    157. Neville MC, Sawicki VS, Hay WW. Effects of fasting, elevated plasma glucose and plasma insulin concentrations on milk secretion in women. J Endocrinol. 1993 Oct; 139(1):165-73. PMID: 8254289.
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    158. Townsend SF, Thureen PJ, Hay WW, Narkewicz MR. Development of primary culture of ovine fetal hepatocytes for studies of amino acid metabolism and insulinlike growth factors. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 1993 Jul; 29A(7):592-6. PMID: 8354668.
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    159. Narkewicz MR, Carver TD, Hay WW. Induction of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in the ovine fetal liver by chronic fetal hypoglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. Pediatr Res. 1993 May; 33(5):493-6. PMID: 8511022.
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    160. Hay WW. The placenta. Not just a conduit for maternal fuels. Diabetes. 1991 Dec; 40 Suppl 2:44-50. PMID: 1748265.
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    161. Hay WW. The role of placental-fetal interaction in fetal nutrition. Semin Perinatol. 1991 Dec; 15(6):424-33. PMID: 1803519.
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    162. Hay WW. Nutritional needs of the extremely low-birth-weight infant. Semin Perinatol. 1991 Dec; 15(6):482-92. PMID: 1803526.
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    163. Molina RD, Meschia G, Battaglia FC, Hay WW. Gestational maturation of placental glucose transfer capacity in sheep. Am J Physiol. 1991 Sep; 261(3 Pt 2):R697-704. PMID: 1887958.
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    164. Hay WW, Thilo E, Curlander JB. Pulse oximetry in neonatal medicine. Clin Perinatol. 1991 Sep; 18(3):441-72. PMID: 1934851.
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    165. Hay WW. Energy and substrate requirements of the placenta and fetus. Proc Nutr Soc. 1991 Aug; 50(2):321-36. PMID: 1749799.
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    166. Hay WW. In vivo measurements of placental transport and metabolism. Proc Nutr Soc. 1991 Aug; 50(2):355-62. PMID: 1749803.
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    167. Loy GL, Quick AN, Hay WW, Meschia G, Battaglia FC, Fennessey PV. Fetoplacental deamination and decarboxylation of leucine. Am J Physiol. 1990 Oct; 259(4 Pt 1):E492-7. PMID: 2221050.
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    168. DiGiacomo JE, Hay WW. Effect of hypoinsulinemia and hyperglycemia on fetal glucose utilization. Am J Physiol. 1990 Oct; 259(4 Pt 1):E506-12. PMID: 1977321.
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    169. Vernon RG, Faulkner A, Hay WW, Calvert DT, Flint DJ. Insulin resistance of hind-limb tissues in vivo in lactating sheep. Biochem J. 1990 Sep 15; 270(3):783-6. PMID: 2241910; PMCID: PMC1131801.
    170. Helms RA, Mauer EC, Hay WW, Christensen ML, Storm MC. Effect of intravenous L-carnitine on growth parameters and fat metabolism during parenteral nutrition in neonates. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1990 Sep-Oct; 14(5):448-53. PMID: 2122016.
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    171. Nobes CD, Hay WW, Brand MD. The mechanism of stimulation of respiration by fatty acids in isolated hepatocytes. J Biol Chem. 1990 Aug 05; 265(22):12910-5. PMID: 2376580.
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    172. Hay WW, Molina RA, DiGiacomo JE, Meschia G. Model of placental glucose consumption and glucose transfer. Am J Physiol. 1990 Mar; 258(3 Pt 2):R569-77. PMID: 2316706.
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    173. Loy GL, Quick AN, Teng CC, Hay WW, Fennessey PV. Versatile stable isotope technique for the measurement of amino acids and keto acids: comparison with radioactive isotope and its use in measuring in vivo disposal rates. Anal Biochem. 1990 Feb 15; 185(1):1-9. PMID: 2344035.
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    174. DiGiacomo JE, Hay WW. Fetal glucose metabolism and oxygen consumption during sustained hypoglycemia. Metabolism. 1990 Feb; 39(2):193-202. PMID: 2405236.
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    175. DiGiacomo JE, Hay WW. Placental-fetal glucose exchange and placental glucose consumption in pregnant sheep. Am J Physiol. 1990 Feb; 258(2 Pt 1):E360-7. PMID: 2407135.
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    176. Hay WW, DiGiacomo JE, Meznarich HK, Hirst K, Zerbe G. Effects of glucose and insulin on fetal glucose oxidation and oxygen consumption. Am J Physiol. 1989 Jun; 256(6 Pt 1):E704-13. PMID: 2660584.
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    177. Hay WW, Brockway JM, Eyzaguirre M. Neonatal pulse oximetry: accuracy and reliability. Pediatrics. 1989 May; 83(5):717-22. PMID: 2717288.
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    178. DiGiacomo JE, Hay WW. Regulation of placental glucose transfer and consumption by fetal glucose production. Pediatr Res. 1989 May; 25(5):429-34. PMID: 2717256.
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    179. Conrad PD, Sparks JW, Osberg I, Abrams L, Hay WW. Clinical application of a new glucose analyzer in the neonatal intensive care unit: comparison with other methods. J Pediatr. 1989 Feb; 114(2):281-7. PMID: 2915288.
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    180. Hay WW, Meznarich HK. Effect of maternal glucose concentration on uteroplacental glucose consumption and transfer in pregnant sheep. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1989 Jan; 190(1):63-9. PMID: 2911609.
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    181. Hay WW, Meznarich HK, Fowden AL. The effects of streptozotocin on rates of glucose utilization, oxidation, and production in the sheep fetus. Metabolism. 1989 Jan; 38(1):30-7. PMID: 2521259.
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    182. Hay WW, Lin CC, Meznarich HK. Effect of high levels of insulin on glucose utilization and glucose production in pregnant and nonpregnant sheep. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1988 Dec; 189(3):275-84. PMID: 3060878.
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    183. Fowden AL, Hay WW. The effects of pancreatectomy on the rates of glucose utilization, oxidation and production in the sheep fetus. Q J Exp Physiol. 1988 Nov; 73(6):973-84. PMID: 3070626.
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    184. Hay WW, Meznarich HK. Use of fetal streptozotocin injection to determine the role of normal levels of fetal insulin in regulating uteroplacental and umbilical glucose exchange. Pediatr Res. 1988 Sep; 24(3):312-7. PMID: 2974939.
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    185. Hay WW, Meznarich HK, DiGiacomo JE, Hirst K, Zerbe G. Effects of insulin and glucose concentrations on glucose utilization in fetal sheep. Pediatr Res. 1988 Apr; 23(4):381-7. PMID: 3287321.
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    186. Heird WC, Hay W, Helms RA, Storm MC, Kashyap S, Dell RB. Pediatric parenteral amino acid mixture in low birth weight infants. Pediatrics. 1988 Jan; 81(1):41-50. PMID: 3122162.
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    187. Kennaugh JM, Hay WW. Nutrition of the fetus and newborn. West J Med. 1987 Oct; 147(4):435-48. PMID: 3318138; PMCID: PMC1025905.
    188. Meznarich HK, Hay WW, Sparks JW, Meschia G, Battaglia FC. Fructose disposal and oxidation rates in the ovine fetus. Q J Exp Physiol. 1987 Oct; 72(4):617-25. PMID: 3122263.
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    189. Hay WW, Brockway J, Eyzaguirre M. Application of the Ohmeda Biox 3700 Pulse Oximeter to neonatal oxygen monitoring. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1987; 220:151-8. PMID: 3673757.
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    190. van Veen LC, Teng C, Hay WW, Meschia G, Battaglia FC. Leucine disposal and oxidation rates in the fetal lamb. Metabolism. 1987 Jan; 36(1):48-53. PMID: 3796296.
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    191. Hay WW. Physiology of oxygenation and its relation to pulse oximetry in neonates. J Perinatol. 1987; 7(4):309-19. PMID: 3333166.
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    192. Hay WW. The uses, benefits, and limitations of pulse oximetry in neonatal medicine: consensus on key issues. J Perinatol. 1987; 7(4):347-9. PMID: 2463351.
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    193. Hay WW, Meznarich HK. The effect of hyperinsulinaemia on glucose utilization and oxidation and on oxygen consumption in the fetal lamb. Q J Exp Physiol. 1986 Oct; 71(4):689-98. PMID: 3097748.
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    194. Zarlengo KM, Battaglia FC, Fennessey P, Hay WW. Relationship between glucose utilization rate and glucose concentration in preterm infants. Biol Neonate. 1986; 49(4):181-9. PMID: 3518818.
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    195. Hay WW, Sparks JW. Placental, fetal, and neonatal carbohydrate metabolism. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1985 Sep; 28(3):473-85. PMID: 3902302.
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    196. Hay WW, Meznarich HK, Sparks JW, Battaglia FC, Meschia G. Effect of insulin on glucose uptake in near-term fetal lambs. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1985 Apr; 178(4):557-64. PMID: 3885234.
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    197. Gilbert M, Hay WW, Johnson RL, Battaglia FC. Some aspects of maternal metabolism throughout pregnancy in the conscious rabbit. Pediatr Res. 1984 Sep; 18(9):854-9. PMID: 6384908.
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    198. Van Veen LC, Hay WW, Battaglia FC, Meschia G. Fetal CO2 kinetics. J Dev Physiol. 1984 Aug; 6(4):359-65. PMID: 6434625.
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    199. Hay WW, Sparks JW, Battaglia FC, Meschia G. Maternal-fetal glucose exchange: necessity of a three-pool model. Am J Physiol. 1984 Jun; 246(6 Pt 1):E528-34. PMID: 6742114.
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    200. Hay WW. Fetal and neonatal glucose homeostasis and their relation to the small for gestational age infant. Semin Perinatol. 1984 Apr; 8(2):101-16. PMID: 6374902.
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    201. Hay WW, Gilbert M, Johnson RL, Battaglia FC. Glucose turnover rates in chronically catheterized non-pregnant and pregnant rabbits. Pediatr Res. 1984 Mar; 18(3):276-80. PMID: 6728561.
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    202. Hay WW, Sparks JW, Wilkening RB, Battaglia FC, Meschia G. Fetal glucose uptake and utilization as functions of maternal glucose concentration. Am J Physiol. 1984 Mar; 246(3 Pt 1):E237-42. PMID: 6703052.
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    203. Hay WW, Sparks JW, Gilbert M, Battaglia FC, Meschia G. Effect of insulin on glucose uptake by the maternal hindlimb and uterus, and by the fetus in conscious pregnant sheep. J Endocrinol. 1984 Jan; 100(1):119-24. PMID: 6361193.
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    204. Hay WW, Sparks JW, Wilkening RB, Battaglia FC, Meschia G. Partition of maternal glucose production between conceptus and maternal tissues in sheep. Am J Physiol. 1983 Oct; 245(4):E347-50. PMID: 6624905.
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    205. Hay WW, Myers SA, Sparks JW, Wilkening RB, Meschia G, Battaglia FC. Glucose and lactate oxidation rates in the fetal lamb. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1983 Sep; 173(4):553-63. PMID: 6412239.
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    206. Hay WW, Osberg IM. The "eyetone" blood glucose reflectance colorimeter evaluated for in vitro and in vivo accuracy and clinical efficacy. Clin Chem. 1983 Mar; 29(3):558-60. PMID: 6337745.
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    207. Sparks JW, Hay WW, Meschia G, Battaglia FC. Partition of maternal nutrients to the placenta and fetus in the sheep. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1983 Feb; 14(5):331-40. PMID: 6840385.
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    208. Sparks JW, Hay WW, Bonds D, Meschia G, Battaglia FC. Simultaneous measurements of lactate turnover rate and umbilical lactate uptake in the fetal lamb. J Clin Invest. 1982 Jul; 70(1):179-92. PMID: 7085882; PMCID: PMC370240.
    209. McDonald MM, Jacobson LJ, Hay WW, Hathaway WE. Heparin clearance in the newborn. Pediatr Res. 1981 Jul; 15(7):1015-8. PMID: 7254945.
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    210. Hay WW, Sparks JW, Quissell BJ, Battaglia FC, Meschia G. Simultaneous measurements of umbilical uptake, fetal utilization rate, and fetal turnover rate of glucose. Am J Physiol. 1981 Jun; 240(6):E662-8. PMID: 7246734.
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    211. Meschia G, Battaglia FC, Hay WW, Sparks JW. Utilization of substrates by the ovine placenta in vivo. Fed Proc. 1980 Feb; 39(2):245-9. PMID: 7353681.
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    212. Hay WW. Fetal glucose metabolism. Semin Perinatol. 1979 Apr; 3(2):157-76. PMID: 494002.
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    213. Orzalesi MM, Hay WW. The relative effect of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate on the oxygen affinity of fetal and adult hemoglobin in whole blood. Experientia. 1972 Dec 15; 28(12):1480-1. PMID: 4654221.
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    214. Orzalesi MM, Hay WW. The regulation of oxygen affinity of fetal blood. I. In vitro experiments and results in normal infants. Pediatrics. 1971 Dec; 48(6):857-64. PMID: 5129447.
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