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Robert Corwine Roach Jr.

TitleAssociate Professor
InstitutionUniversity of Colorado Denver - Anschutz Medical Campus
DepartmentSOM-Emergency Medicine
Phone303/724-1671

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    My research focuses on the broad area of human responses to hypoxia. Current research is focused on three major areas: cerebrovascular hemodynamics in hypoxia and exercise; transcriptomic prediction of human responses to hypoxia; and the integration of systems biology with integrative, whole body physiology to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms of oxygen sensing in humans.

    Cerebrovascular Hemodynamics: We have recently shown that hypoxia impairs cerebral autoregulation; research is underway to begin to understand the importance of this finding and its possible mechanisms.

    Prediction of Human Responses to Hypoxia: We found that a gene expression signature from a blood sample collected in Denver predicted >95% of those who later developed acute mountain sickness. A recent validation study at lower altitudes in a more diverse population confirmed these findings. Studies are underway to examine the physiological links of these transcriptomic markers and pathways that lead to susceptibility to altitude illness.

    Systems biology and human integrative physiological responses to hypoxia: We are undertaking studies to link a comprehensive ‘omics’ pathway of oxygen sensing (transcriptomics, epigenetics, proteomics, metabolomics) to physiological responses that serve to improve oxygen transport during acute and chronic hypoxia.

    At the Altitude Research Center I have mentored 17 junior researchers, ranging from research fellows in Emergency Medicine, Neurology and Pulmonary Medicine to medical students, postdoctoral fellows and undergraduate students. I am active on the Department of Emergency Medicine research council, and mentor an additional six junior faculty on hypoxia research-related topics.


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    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Olin JT, Dimmen AC, Subudhi AW, Roach RC. A simple method to clamp end-tidal carbon dioxide during rest and exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012 Sep; 112(9):3439-44. PMID: 22736248.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Subudhi AW, Olin JT, Dimmen AC, Polaner DM, Kayser B, Roach RC. Does cerebral oxygen delivery limit incremental exercise performance? J Appl Physiol (1985). 2011 Dec; 111(6):1727-34. PMID: 21921244; PMCID: PMC3233884.
    3. Julian CG, Subudhi AW, Wilson MJ, Dimmen AC, Pecha T, Roach RC. Acute mountain sickness, inflammation, and permeability: new insights from a blood biomarker study. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2011 Aug; 111(2):392-9. PMID: 21636566; PMCID: PMC3154693.
    4. Ezzati M, Horwitz ME, Thomas DS, Friedman AB, Roach R, Clark T, Murray CJ, Honigman B. Altitude, life expectancy and mortality from ischaemic heart disease, stroke, COPD and cancers: national population-based analysis of US counties. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2012 Jul; 66(7):e17. PMID: 21406589.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Subudhi AW, Dimmen AC, Julian CG, Wilson MJ, Panerai RB, Roach RC. Effects of acetazolamide and dexamethasone on cerebral hemodynamics in hypoxia. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2011 May; 110(5):1219-25. PMID: 21393464; PMCID: PMC3098658.
    6. Wilson MJ, Julian CG, Roach RC. Genomic analysis of high altitude adaptation: innovations and implications. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2011 Mar-Apr; 10(2):59-61. PMID: 21603073; PMCID: PMC3097096.
    7. Browne VA, Toledo-Jaldin L, Davila RD, Lopez LP, Yamashiro H, Cioffi-Ragan D, Julian CG, Wilson MJ, Bigham AW, Shriver MD, Honigman B, Vargas E, Roach R, Moore LG. High-end arteriolar resistance limits uterine artery blood flow and restricts fetal growth in preeclampsia and gestational hypertension at high altitude. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011 May; 300(5):R1221-9. PMID: 21325643; PMCID: PMC3094033.
    8. Asgari S, Subudhi AW, Roach RC, Liebeskind DS, Bergsneider M, Hu X. An extended model of intracranial latency facilitates non-invasive detection of cerebrovascular changes. J Neurosci Methods. 2011 Apr 15; 197(1):171-9. PMID: 21310179; PMCID: PMC3072962.
    9. Roach R, Kayser B, Hackett P. Pro: Headache should be a required symptom for the diagnosis of acute mountain sickness. High Alt Med Biol. 2011; 12(1):21-2; discussion 29. PMID: 21452960.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Olin JT, Dimmen AC, Subudhi AW, Roach RC. Cerebral blood flow and oxygenation at maximal exercise: the effect of clamping carbon dioxide. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2011 Jan 31; 175(1):176-80. PMID: 20884383; PMCID: PMC3005100.
    11. Imray C, Wright A, Subudhi A, Roach R. Acute mountain sickness: pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 May-Jun; 52(6):467-84. PMID: 20417340.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Subudhi AW, Panerai RB, Roach RC. Effects of hypobaric hypoxia on cerebral autoregulation. Stroke. 2010 Apr; 41(4):641-6. PMID: 20185774.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Subudhi AW, Panerai RB, Roach RC. Acute hypoxia impairs dynamic cerebral autoregulation: results from two independent techniques. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009 Oct; 107(4):1165-71. PMID: 19661450; PMCID: PMC2763837.
    14. Tissot van Patot MC, Serkova NJ, Haschke M, Kominsky DJ, Roach RC, Christians U, Henthorn TK, Honigman B. Enhanced leukocyte HIF-1alpha and HIF-1 DNA binding in humans after rapid ascent to 4300 m. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009 Jun 01; 46(11):1551-7. PMID: 19303436.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Heine M, Subudhi AW, Roach RC. Effect of ventilation on cerebral oxygenation during exercise: insights from canonical correlation. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2009 Apr 30; 166(2):125-8. PMID: 19429529; PMCID: PMC2682587.
    16. Subudhi AW, Miramon BR, Granger ME, Roach RC. Frontal and motor cortex oxygenation during maximal exercise in normoxia and hypoxia. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009 Apr; 106(4):1153-8. PMID: 19150853; PMCID: PMC2698647.
    17. Hu X, Subudhi AW, Xu P, Asgari S, Roach RC, Bergsneider M. Inferring cerebrovascular changes from latencies of systemic and intracranial pulses: a model-based latency subtraction algorithm. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2009 Apr; 29(4):688-97. PMID: 19142194; PMCID: PMC2664398.
    18. Firth PG, Zheng H, Windsor JS, Sutherland AI, Imray CH, Moore GW, Semple JL, Roach RC, Salisbury RA. Mortality on Mount Everest, 1921-2006: descriptive study. BMJ. 2008 Dec 11; 337:a2654. PMID: 19074222; PMCID: PMC2602730.
    19. Irwin DC, Subudhi AW, Klopp L, Peterson D, Roach R, Monnet E. Pulmonary edema induced by cerebral hypoxic insult in a canine model. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2008 May; 79(5):472-8. PMID: 18500043.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Subudhi AW, Roach RC. Endurance performance at altitude. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2008 Feb; 7(1):6-7. PMID: 18296936.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Sutherland AI, Morris DS, Owen CG, Bron AJ, Roach RC. Optic nerve sheath diameter, intracranial pressure and acute mountain sickness on Mount Everest: a longitudinal cohort study. Br J Sports Med. 2008 Mar; 42(3):183-8. PMID: 18182624.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Loeppky JA, Icenogle MV, Charlton GA, Conn CA, Maes D, Riboni K, Gates L, Melo MF, Roach RC. Hypoxemia and acute mountain sickness: which comes first? High Alt Med Biol. 2008; 9(4):271-9. PMID: 19115910.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Subudhi AW, Lorenz MC, Fulco CS, Roach RC. Cerebrovascular responses to incremental exercise during hypobaric hypoxia: effect of oxygenation on maximal performance. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008 Jan; 294(1):H164-71. PMID: 18032522.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Subudhi AW, Dimmen AC, Roach RC. Effects of acute hypoxia on cerebral and muscle oxygenation during incremental exercise. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007 Jul; 103(1):177-83. PMID: 17431082.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Roach R, Kayser B. Measuring mountain maladies. High Alt Med Biol. 2007; 8(3):171-2. PMID: 17824814.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Loeppky JA, Roach RC, Maes D, Hinghofer-Szalkay H, Roessler A, Gates L, Fletcher ER, Icenogle MV. Role of hypobaria in fluid balance response to hypoxia. High Alt Med Biol. 2005; 6(1):60-71. PMID: 15772501.
      View in: PubMed
    27. León-Velarde F, Maggiorini M, Reeves JT, Aldashev A, Asmus I, Bernardi L, Ge RL, Hackett P, Kobayashi T, Moore LG, Penaloza D, Richalet JP, Roach R, Wu T, Vargas E, Zubieta-Castillo G, Zubieta-Calleja G. Consensus statement on chronic and subacute high altitude diseases. High Alt Med Biol. 2005; 6(2):147-57. PMID: 16060849.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Loeppky JA, Icenogle MV, Maes D, Riboni K, Hinghofer-Szalkay H, Roach RC. Early fluid retention and severe acute mountain sickness. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005 Feb; 98(2):591-7. PMID: 15501929.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Appenzeller O, Passino C, Roach R, Gamboa J, Gamboa A, Bernardi L, Bonfichi M, Malcovati L. Cerebral vasoreactivity in Andeans and headache at sea level. J Neurol Sci. 2004 Apr 15; 219(1-2):101-6. PMID: 15050445.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Greene ER, Roach RC. Doppler ultrasound determination of the distribution of human cardiac output: effects of age and physical stresses. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2004; 5:3704-7. PMID: 17271098.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Hackett PH, Roach RC. High altitude cerebral edema. High Alt Med Biol. 2004; 5(2):136-46. PMID: 15265335.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Loeppky JA, Icenogle MV, Maes D, Riboni K, Scotto P, Roach RC. Body temperature, autonomic responses, and acute mountain sickness. High Alt Med Biol. 2003; 4(3):367-73. PMID: 14561242.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Bernardi L, Roach RC, Keyl C, Spicuzza L, Passino C, Bonfichi M, Gamboa A, Gamboa J, Malcovati L, Schneider A, Casiraghi N, Mori A, Leon-Velarde F. Ventilation, autonomic function, sleep and erythropoietin. Chronic mountain sickness of Andean natives. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003; 543:161-75. PMID: 14713121.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Bestle MH, Olsen NV, Poulsen TD, Roach R, Fogh-Andersen N, Bie P. Prolonged hypobaric hypoxemia attenuates vasopressin secretion and renal response to osmostimulation in men. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2002 May; 92(5):1911-22. PMID: 11960941.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Møller K, Paulson OB, Hornbein TF, Colier WN, Paulson AS, Roach RC, Holm S, Knudsen GM. Unchanged cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism after acclimatization to high altitude. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2002 Jan; 22(1):118-26. PMID: 11807401.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Roach RC, Hackett PH. Frontiers of hypoxia research: acute mountain sickness. J Exp Biol. 2001 Sep; 204(Pt 18):3161-70. PMID: 11581330.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Sandoval DA, Maes DP, D'Acquisto L, Icenogle M, Roach RC. Oral contraceptives, exercise, and acute mountain sickness in women. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2001 Aug; 72(8):733-8. PMID: 11506235.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Hackett PH, Roach RC. High-altitude illness. N Engl J Med. 2001 Jul 12; 345(2):107-14. PMID: 11450659.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Loeppky JA, Scotto P, Charlton GC, Gates L, Icenogle M, Roach RC. Ventilation is greater in women than men, but the increase during acute altitude hypoxia is the same. Respir Physiol. 2001 Apr; 125(3):225-37. PMID: 11282389.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Pollard AJ, Niermeyer S, Barry P, Bärtsch P, Berghold F, Bishop RA, Clarke C, Dhillon S, Dietz TE, Durmowicz A, Durrer B, Eldridge M, Hackett P, Jean D, Kriemler S, Litch JA, Murdoch D, Nickol A, Richalet JP, Roach R, Shlim DR, Wiget U, Yaron M, Zubieta-Castillo G, Zubieta-Calleja GR. Children at high altitude: an international consensus statement by an ad hoc committee of the International Society for Mountain Medicine, March 12, 2001. High Alt Med Biol. 2001; 2(3):389-403. PMID: 11682018.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Roach RC, Maes D, Sandoval D, Robergs RA, Icenogle M, Hinghofer-Szalkay H, Lium D, Loeppky JA. Exercise exacerbates acute mountain sickness at simulated high altitude. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2000 Feb; 88(2):581-5. PMID: 10658026.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Roach RC, Koskolou MD, Calbet JA, Saltin B. Arterial O2 content and tension in regulation of cardiac output and leg blood flow during exercise in humans. Am J Physiol. 1999 Feb; 276(2 Pt 2):H438-45. PMID: 9950843.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Levine BD, Zhang R, Roach RC. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation at high altitude. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999; 474:319-22. PMID: 10635010.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Roach RC, Greene ER, Schoene RB, Hackett PH. Arterial oxygen saturation for prediction of acute mountain sickness. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1998 Dec; 69(12):1182-5. PMID: 9856544.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Nielsen HB, Madsen P, Svendsen LB, Roach RC, Secher NH. The influence of PaO2, pH and SaO2 on maximal oxygen uptake. Acta Physiol Scand. 1998 Sep; 164(1):89-7. PMID: 9777029.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Saltin B, Rådegran G, Koskolou MD, Roach RC. Skeletal muscle blood flow in humans and its regulation during exercise. Acta Physiol Scand. 1998 Mar; 162(3):421-36. PMID: 9578388.
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    47. Koskolou MD, Roach RC, Calbet JA, Rådegran G, Saltin B. Cardiovascular responses to dynamic exercise with acute anemia in humans. Am J Physiol. 1997 Oct; 273(4 Pt 2):H1787-93. PMID: 9362244.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Koskolou MD, Calbet JA, Rådegran G, Roach RC. Hypoxia and the cardiovascular response to dynamic knee-extensor exercise. Am J Physiol. 1997 Jun; 272(6 Pt 2):H2655-63. PMID: 9227543.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Loeppky JA, Icenogle M, Scotto P, Robergs R, Hinghofer-Szalkay H, Roach RC. Ventilation during simulated altitude, normobaric hypoxia and normoxic hypobaria. Respir Physiol. 1997 Mar; 107(3):231-9. PMID: 9128904.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Loeppky JA, Scotto P, Roach RC. Acute ventilatory response to simulated altitude, normobaric hypoxia, and hypobaria. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1996 Nov; 67(11):1019-22. PMID: 8908337.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Roach RC, Loeppky JA, Icenogle MV. Acute mountain sickness: increased severity during simulated altitude compared with normobaric hypoxia. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1996 Nov; 81(5):1908-10. PMID: 8941508.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Honigman B, Read M, Lezotte D, Roach RC. Sea-level physical activity and acute mountain sickness at moderate altitude. West J Med. 1995 Aug; 163(2):117-21. PMID: 7571557; PMCID: PMC1303003.
    53. Roach RC, Houston CS, Honigman B, Nicholas RA, Yaron M, Grissom CK, Alexander JK, Hultgren HN. How well do older persons tolerate moderate altitude? West J Med. 1995 Jan; 162(1):32-6. PMID: 7863654; PMCID: PMC1022590.
    54. Loeppky JA, Fletcher ER, Roach RC, Luft UC. Relationship between whole blood base excess and CO2 content in vivo. Respir Physiol. 1993 Oct; 94(1):109-20. PMID: 8272578.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Honigman B, Theis MK, Koziol-McLain J, Roach R, Yip R, Houston C, Moore LG, Pearce P. Acute mountain sickness in a general tourist population at moderate altitudes. Ann Intern Med. 1993 Apr 15; 118(8):587-92. PMID: 8452324.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Loeppky JA, Roach RC, Selland MA, Scotto P, Luft FC, Luft UC. Body fluid alterations during head-down bed rest in men at moderate altitude. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1993 Apr; 64(4):265-74. PMID: 8476366.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Loeppky JA, Roach RC, Selland MA, Scotto P, Greene ER, Luft UC. Effects of prolonged head-down bed rest on physiological responses to moderate hypoxia. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1993 Apr; 64(4):275-86. PMID: 8476367.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Hackett PH, Roach RC, Hartig GS, Greene ER, Levine BD. The effect of vasodilators on pulmonary hemodynamics in high altitude pulmonary edema: a comparison. Int J Sports Med. 1992 Oct; 13 Suppl 1:S68-71. PMID: 1483798.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Loeppky JA, Scotto P, Riedel CE, Roach RC, Chick TW. Effects of acid-base status on acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and gas exchange. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1992 May; 72(5):1787-97. PMID: 1601787.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Grissom CK, Roach RC, Sarnquist FH, Hackett PH. Acetazolamide in the treatment of acute mountain sickness: clinical efficacy and effect on gas exchange. Ann Intern Med. 1992 Mar 15; 116(6):461-5. PMID: 1739236.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Swenson ER, Leatham KL, Roach RC, Schoene RB, Mills WJ, Hackett PH. Renal carbonic anhydrase inhibition reduces high altitude sleep periodic breathing. Respir Physiol. 1991 Dec; 86(3):333-43. PMID: 1788493.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Kasic JF, Yaron M, Nicholas RA, Lickteig JA, Roach R. Treatment of acute mountain sickness: hyperbaric versus oxygen therapy. Ann Emerg Med. 1991 Oct; 20(10):1109-12. PMID: 1928883.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Levine BD, Grayburn PA, Voyles WF, Greene ER, Roach RC, Hackett PH. Intracardiac shunting across a patent foramen ovale may exacerbate hypoxemia in high-altitude pulmonary edema. Ann Intern Med. 1991 Apr 01; 114(7):569-70. PMID: 2001089.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Schoene RB, Roach RC, Hackett PH, Sutton JR, Cymerman A, Houston CS. Operation Everest II: ventilatory adaptation during gradual decompression to extreme altitude. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990 Dec; 22(6):804-10. PMID: 2287258.
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    65. Kalkwarf HJ, Haas JD, Belko AZ, Roach RC, Roe DA. Accuracy of heart-rate monitoring and activity diaries for estimating energy expenditure. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989 Jan; 49(1):37-43. PMID: 2912009.
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    66. Hackett PH, Roach RC, Wood RA, Foutch RG, Meehan RT, Rennie D, Mills WJ. Dexamethasone for prevention and treatment of acute mountain sickness. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1988 Oct; 59(10):950-4. PMID: 3190622.
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    67. Schoene RB, Swenson ER, Pizzo CJ, Hackett PH, Roach RC, Mills WJ, Henderson WR, Martin TR. The lung at high altitude: bronchoalveolar lavage in acute mountain sickness and pulmonary edema. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1988 Jun; 64(6):2605-13. PMID: 3403445.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Hackett PH, Roach RC, Schoene RB, Harrison GL, Mills WJ. Abnormal control of ventilation in high-altitude pulmonary edema. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1988 Mar; 64(3):1268-72. PMID: 3366741.
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    69. Hackett PH, Roach RC. Medical therapy of altitude illness. Ann Emerg Med. 1987 Sep; 16(9):980-6. PMID: 3307558.
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    70. Hackett PH, Roach RC, Harrison GL, Schoene RB, Mills WJ. Respiratory stimulants and sleep periodic breathing at high altitude. Almitrine versus acetazolamide. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1987 Apr; 135(4):896-8. PMID: 3565935.
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    71. Schoene RB, Hackett PH, Henderson WR, Sage EH, Chow M, Roach RC, Mills WJ, Martin TR. High-altitude pulmonary edema. Characteristics of lung lavage fluid. JAMA. 1986 Jul 04; 256(1):63-9. PMID: 3012134.
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    72. Hackett PH, Rodriguez G, Roach RC. Clove cigarettes and high-altitude pulmonary edema. JAMA. 1985 Jun 28; 253(24):3551-2. PMID: 3999337.
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    73. Schoene RB, Roach RC, Hackett PH, Harrison G, Mills WJ. High altitude pulmonary edema and exercise at 4,400 meters on Mount McKinley. Effect of expiratory positive airway pressure. Chest. 1985 Mar; 87(3):330-3. PMID: 3882350.
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    74. Belko AZ, Obarzanek E, Roach R, Rotter M, Urban G, Weinberg S, Roe DA. Effects of aerobic exercise and weight loss on riboflavin requirements of moderately obese, marginally deficient young women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1984 Sep; 40(3):553-61. PMID: 6475825.
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    75. Roach RC, Larson EB, Hornbein TF, Houston CS, Bartlett S, Hardesty J, Johnson D, Perkins M. Acute mountain sickness, antacids, and ventilation during rapid, active ascent of Mount Rainier. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1983 May; 54(5):397-401. PMID: 6347173.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Larson EB, Roach RC, Schoene RB, Hornbein TF. Acute mountain sickness and acetazolamide. Clinical efficacy and effect on ventilation. JAMA. 1982 Jul 16; 248(3):328-32. PMID: 7045433.
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