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Robert L Spencer

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of Colorado Boulder
DepartmentPsych-Psychology
Phone303/492-0854
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0003-3120-6303 

     Bibliographic 
     selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Spencer RL, Deak T. A users guide to HPA axis research. Physiol Behav. 2016 Nov 18.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Carol EE, Spencer RL, Mittal VA. Sex differences in morning cortisol in youth at ultra-high-risk for psychosis. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016 Oct; 72:87-93.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Osterlund CD, Rodriguez-Santiago M, Woodruff ER, Newsom RJ, Chadayammuri AP, Spencer RL. Glucocorticoid Fast Feedback Inhibition of Stress-Induced ACTH Secretion in the Male Rat: Rate Independence and Stress-State Resistance. Endocrinology. 2016 Jul; 157(7):2785-98.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Woodruff ER, Chun LE, Hinds LR, Spencer RL. Diurnal Corticosterone Presence and Phase Modulate Clock Gene Expression in the Male Rat Prefrontal Cortex. Endocrinology. 2016 Apr; 157(4):1522-34.
      View in: PubMed
    5. O'Neill CE, Newsom RJ, Stafford J, Scott T, Archuleta S, Levis SC, Spencer RL, Campeau S, Bachtell RK. Adolescent caffeine consumption increases adulthood anxiety-related behavior and modifies neuroendocrine signaling. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016 May; 67:40-50.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Perkins AE, Doremus-Fitzwater TL, Spencer RL, Varlinskaya EI, Conti MM, Bishop C, Deak T. A working model for the assessment of disruptions in social behavior among aged rats: The role of sex differences, social recognition, and sensorimotor processes. Exp Gerontol. 2016 Apr; 76:46-57.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Chun LE, Woodruff ER, Morton S, Hinds LR, Spencer RL. Variations in Phase and Amplitude of Rhythmic Clock Gene Expression across Prefrontal Cortex, Hippocampus, Amygdala, and Hypothalamic Paraventricular and Suprachiasmatic Nuclei of Male and Female Rats. J Biol Rhythms. 2015 Oct; 30(5):417-36.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Woodruff ER, Greenwood BN, Chun LE, Fardi S, Hinds LR, Spencer RL. Adrenal-dependent diurnal modulation of conditioned fear extinction learning. Behav Brain Res. 2015 Jun 01; 286:249-55.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Stamper CE, Hennessey PA, Hale MW, Lukkes JL, Donner NC, Lowe KR, Paul ED, Spencer RL, Renner KJ, Orchinik M, Lowry CA. Role of the dorsomedial hypothalamus in glucocorticoid-mediated feedback inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Stress. 2015 Jan; 18(1):76-87.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Barrientos RM, Thompson VM, Kitt MM, Amat J, Hale MW, Frank MG, Crysdale NY, Stamper CE, Hennessey PA, Watkins LR, Spencer RL, Lowry CA, Maier SF. Greater glucocorticoid receptor activation in hippocampus of aged rats sensitizes microglia. Neurobiol Aging. 2015 Mar; 36(3):1483-95.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Sollars PJ, Weiser MJ, Kudwa AE, Bramley JR, Ogilvie MD, Spencer RL, Handa RJ, Pickard GE. Altered entrainment to the day/night cycle attenuates the daily rise in circulating corticosterone in the mouse. PLoS One. 2014; 9(11):e111944.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Highland JA, Weiser MJ, Hinds LR, Spencer RL. CRTC2 activation in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, but not paraventricular nucleus, varies in a diurnal fashion and increases with nighttime light exposure. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2014 Oct 01; 307(7):C611-21.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Osterlund CD, Thompson V, Hinds L, Spencer RL. Absence of glucocorticoids augments stress-induced Mkp1 mRNA expression within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. J Endocrinol. 2014 Jan; 220(1):1-11.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Kearns RR, Spencer RL. An unexpected increase in restraint duration alters the expression of stress response habituation. Physiol Behav. 2013 Oct 02; 122:193-200.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Osterlund CD, Jarvis E, Chadayammuri A, Unnithan R, Weiser MJ, Spencer RL. Tonic, but not phasic corticosterone, constrains stress activatedextracellular-regulated-kinase 1/ 2 immunoreactivity within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. J Neuroendocrinol. 2011 Dec; 23(12):1241-51.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Weiser MJ, Osterlund C, Spencer RL. Inhibitory effects of corticosterone in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) on stress-induced adrenocorticotrophic hormone secretion and gene expression in the PVN and anterior pituitary. J Neuroendocrinol. 2011 Dec; 23(12):1231-40.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Newsom RJ, Osterlund C, Masini CV, Day HE, Spencer RL, Campeau S. Cannabinoid receptor type 1 antagonism significantly modulates basal and loud noise induced neural and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neuroscience. 2012 Mar 01; 204:64-73.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Vanelzakker MB, Zoladz PR, Thompson VM, Park CR, Halonen JD, Spencer RL, Diamond DM. Influence of Pre-Training Predator Stress on the Expression of c-fos mRNA in the Hippocampus, Amygdala, and Striatum Following Long-Term Spatial Memory Retrieval. Front Behav Neurosci. 2011; 5:30.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Osterlund C, Spencer RL. Corticosterone pretreatment suppresses stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity via multiple actions that vary with time, site of action, and de novo protein synthesis. J Endocrinol. 2011 Mar; 208(3):311-22.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Weinberg MS, Grissom N, Paul E, Bhatnagar S, Maier SF, Spencer RL. Inescapable but not escapable stress leads to increased struggling behavior and basolateral amygdala c-fos gene expression in response to subsequent novel stress challenge. Neuroscience. 2010 Sep 29; 170(1):138-48.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Weinberg MS, Johnson DC, Bhatt AP, Spencer RL. Medial prefrontal cortex activity can disrupt the expression of stress response habituation. Neuroscience. 2010 Jul 14; 168(3):744-56.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Spencer RL, Weiser MJ. TORC: a new twist on corticotropin-releasing hormone gene expression. Endocrinology. 2010 Mar; 151(3):855-8.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Pace TW, Gaylord RI, Jarvis E, Girotti M, Spencer RL. Differential glucocorticoid effects on stress-induced gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and ACTH secretion in the rat. Stress. 2009 Sep; 12(5):400-11.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Girotti M, Weinberg MS, Spencer RL. Diurnal expression of functional and clock-related genes throughout the rat HPA axis: system-wide shifts in response to a restricted feeding schedule. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Apr; 296(4):E888-97.
      View in: PubMed
    25. VanElzakker M, Fevurly RD, Breindel T, Spencer RL. Environmental novelty is associated with a selective increase in Fos expression in the output elements of the hippocampal formation and the perirhinal cortex. Learn Mem. 2008 Dec; 15(12):899-908.
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    26. Weinberg MS, Bhatt AP, Girotti M, Masini CV, Day HE, Campeau S, Spencer RL. Repeated ferret odor exposure induces different temporal patterns of same-stressor habituation and novel-stressor sensitization in both hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and forebrain c-fos expression in the rat. Endocrinology. 2009 Feb; 150(2):749-61.
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    27. Brown DA, Johnson MS, Armstrong CJ, Lynch JM, Caruso NM, Ehlers LB, Fleshner M, Spencer RL, Moore RL. Short-term treadmill running in the rat: what kind of stressor is it? J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007 Dec; 103(6):1979-85.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Weinberg MS, Girotti M, Spencer RL. Restraint-induced fra-2 and c-fos expression in the rat forebrain: relationship to stress duration. Neuroscience. 2007 Dec 05; 150(2):478-86.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Girotti M, Weinberg MS, Spencer RL. Differential responses of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis immediate early genes to corticosterone and circadian drive. Endocrinology. 2007 May; 148(5):2542-52.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Francis AB, Pace TW, Ginsberg AB, Rubin BA, Spencer RL. Limited brain diffusion of the glucocorticoid receptor agonist RU28362 following i.c.v. administration: implications for i.c.v. drug delivery and glucocorticoid negative feedback in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Neuroscience. 2006 Sep 01; 141(3):1503-15.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Der-Avakian A, Bland ST, Schmid MJ, Watkins LR, Spencer RL, Maier SF. The role of glucocorticoids in the uncontrollable stress-induced potentiation of nucleus accumbens shell dopamine and conditioned place preference responses to morphine. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2006 Jun; 31(5):653-63.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Ginsberg AB, Frank MG, Francis AB, Rubin BA, O'Connor KA, Spencer RL. Specific and time-dependent effects of glucocorticoid receptor agonist RU28362 on stress-induced pro-opiomelanocortin hnRNA, c-fos mRNA and zif268 mRNA in the pituitary. J Neuroendocrinol. 2006 Feb; 18(2):129-38.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Girotti M, Pace TW, Gaylord RI, Rubin BA, Herman JP, Spencer RL. Habituation to repeated restraint stress is associated with lack of stress-induced c-fos expression in primary sensory processing areas of the rat brain. Neuroscience. 2006; 138(4):1067-81.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Pace TW, Gaylord R, Topczewski F, Girotti M, Rubin B, Spencer RL. Immediate-early gene induction in hippocampus and cortex as a result of novel experience is not directly related to the stressfulness of that experience. Eur J Neurosci. 2005 Oct; 22(7):1679-90.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Bland ST, Schmid MJ, Der-Avakian A, Watkins LR, Spencer RL, Maier SF. Expression of c-fos and BDNF mRNA in subregions of the prefrontal cortex of male and female rats after acute uncontrollable stress. Brain Res. 2005 Jul 27; 1051(1-2):90-9.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Pace TW, Spencer RL. Disruption of mineralocorticoid receptor function increases corticosterone responding to a mild, but not moderate, psychological stressor. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Jun; 288(6):E1082-8.
      View in: PubMed
    37. O'Connor KA, Ginsberg AB, Maksimova E, Wieseler Frank JL, Johnson JD, Spencer RL, Campeau S, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Stress-induced sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis is associated with alterations of hypothalamic and pituitary gene expression. Neuroendocrinology. 2004; 80(4):252-63.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Fevurly RD, Spencer RL. Fos expression is selectively and differentially regulated by endogenous glucocorticoids in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the dentate gyrus. J Neuroendocrinol. 2004 Dec; 16(12):970-9.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Der-Avakian A, Will MJ, Bland ST, Deak T, Nguyen KT, Schmid MJ, Spencer RL, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Surgical and pharmacological suppression of glucocorticoids prevents the enhancement of morphine conditioned place preference by uncontrollable stress in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 May; 179(2):409-17.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Ginsberg AB, Campeau S, Day HE, Spencer RL. Acute glucocorticoid pretreatment suppresses stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormone secretion and expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone hnRNA but does not affect c-fos mRNA or fos protein expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. J Neuroendocrinol. 2003 Nov; 15(11):1075-83.
      View in: PubMed
    41. O'Connor KA, Johnson JD, Hammack SE, Brooks LM, Spencer RL, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Inescapable shock induces resistance to the effects of dexamethasone. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2003 May; 28(4):481-500.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Kalman BA, Spencer RL. Rapid corticosteroid-dependent regulation of mineralocorticoid receptor protein expression in rat brain. Endocrinology. 2002 Nov; 143(11):4184-95.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Murphy EK, Spencer RL, Sipe KJ, Herman JP. Decrements in nuclear glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels and DNA binding in aged rat hippocampus. Endocrinology. 2002 Apr; 143(4):1362-70.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Johnson JD, O'Connor KA, Deak T, Spencer RL, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Prior stressor exposure primes the HPA axis. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2002 Apr; 27(3):353-65.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Beane ML, Cole MA, Spencer RL, Rudy JW. Neonatal handling enhances contextual fear conditioning and alters corticosterone stress responses in young rats. Horm Behav. 2002 Feb; 41(1):33-40.
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    46. Pace TW, Cole MA, Ward G, Kalman BA, Spencer RL. Acute exposure to a novel stressor further reduces the habituated corticosterone response to restraint in rats. Stress. 2001 Dec; 4(4):319-31.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Moraska A, Deak T, Spencer RL, Roth D, Fleshner M. Treadmill running produces both positive and negative physiological adaptations in Sprague-Dawley rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2000 Oct; 279(4):R1321-9.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Cole MA, Kalman BA, Pace TW, Topczewski F, Lowrey MJ, Spencer RL. Selective blockade of the mineralocorticoid receptor impairs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis expression of habituation. J Neuroendocrinol. 2000 Oct; 12(10):1034-42.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Spencer RL, Kalman BA, Cotter CS, Deak T. Discrimination between changes in glucocorticoid receptor expression and activation in rat brain using western blot analysis. Brain Res. 2000 Jun 23; 868(2):275-86.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Cole MA, Kim PJ, Kalman BA, Spencer RL. Dexamethasone suppression of corticosteroid secretion: evaluation of the site of action by receptor measures and functional studies. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2000 Feb; 25(2):151-67.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Deak T, Nguyen KT, Cotter CS, Fleshner M, Watkins LR, Maier SF, Spencer RL. Long-term changes in mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptor occupancy following exposure to an acute stressor. Brain Res. 1999 Nov 20; 847(2):211-20.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Herman JP, Watson SJ, Spencer RL. Defense of Adrenocorticosteroid Receptor Expression in Rat Hippocampus: Effects of Stress and Strain1. Endocrinology. 1999 Sep 01; 140(9):3981-3991.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Deak T, Nguyen KT, Ehrlich AL, Watkins LR, Spencer RL, Maier SF, Licinio J, Wong ML, Chrousos GP, Webster E, Gold PW. The Impact of the Nonpeptide Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Antagonist Antalarmin on Behavioral and Endocrine Responses to Stress* *This research was supported by NIMH Grant MH-50479 and the Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Endocrinology. 1999 Jan 01; 140(1):79-86.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Deak T, Nguyen KT, Ehrlich AL, Watkins LR, Spencer RL, Maier SF, Licinio J, Wong ML, Chrousos GP, Webster E, Gold PW. The impact of the nonpeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone antagonist antalarmin on behavioral and endocrine responses to stress. Endocrinology. 1999 Jan; 140(1):79-86.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Spencer RL, Hutchison KE. Alcohol, aging, and the stress response. Alcohol Res Health. 1999; 23(4):272-83.
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    56. Kim PJ, Cole MA, Kalman BA, Spencer RL. Evaluation of RU28318 and RU40555 as selective mineralocorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor antagonists, respectively: receptor measures and functional studies. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1998 Nov; 67(3):213-22.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Spencer RL, Kim PJ, Kalman BA, Cole MA. Evidence for mineralocorticoid receptor facilitation of glucocorticoid receptor-dependent regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Endocrinology. 1998 Jun; 139(6):2718-26.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Deak T, Meriwether JL, Fleshner M, Spencer RL, Abouhamze A, Moldawer LL, Grahn RE, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Evidence that brief stress may induce the acute phase response in rats. Am J Physiol. 1997 Dec; 273(6 Pt 2):R1998-2004.
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    59. Kalman BA, Kim PJ, Cole MA, Chi MS, Spencer RL. Diazepam attenuation of restraint stress-induced corticosterone levels is enhanced by prior exposure to repeated restraint. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1997 Jul; 22(5):349-60.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Spencer RL, Miller AH, Moday H, McEwen BS, Blanchard RJ, Blanchard DC, Sakai RR. Chronic social stress produces reductions in available splenic type II corticosteroid receptor binding and plasma corticosteroid binding globulin levels. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1996 Jan; 21(1):95-109.
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    61. Fleshner M, Deak T, Spencer RL, Laudenslager ML, Watkins LR, Maier SF. A long-term increase in basal levels of corticosterone and a decrease in corticosteroid-binding globulin after acute stressor exposure. Endocrinology. 1995 Dec; 136(12):5336-42.
      View in: PubMed
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