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Cynthia S. Firnhaber

TitleAssociate Professor
InstitutionUniversity of Colorado Denver - Anschutz Medical Campus

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Firnhaber C, Swarts A, Goeieman B, Rakhombe N, Mulongo M, Williamson AL, Michelow P, Ramotshela S, Faesen M, Levin S, Wilkin T. Cryotherapy Reduces Progression of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 1 in South African HIV-Infected Women: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 Dec 15; 76(5):532-538. PMID: 28902073.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Schnippel K, Firnhaber C, Ndjeka N, Conradie F, Page-Shipp L, Berhanu R, Sinanovic E. Persistently high early mortality despite rapid diagnostics for drug-resistant tuberculosis cases in South Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2017 Oct 01; 21(10):1106-1111. PMID: 28911353.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Badal-Faesen S, Firnhaber C, Kendall MA, Wu X, Grinsztejn B, Escada RODS, Fernandez M, Hogg E, Sanne I, Johnson P, Alland D, Mazurek GH, Benator DA, Luetkemeyer AF. Impact of Larger Sputum Volume on Xpert® MTB/RIF Assay Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Smear-Negative Individuals with Suspected Tuberculosis. J Clin Med. 2017 Aug 07; 6(8). PMID: 28783093.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Mbulawa ZZA, Wilkin T, Goeieman BJ, Jong E, Michelow P, Swarts A, Smith JS, Kegorilwe P, Firnhaber CS, Williamson AL. Prevalence of Anal Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Performance of Cepheid Xpert and Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2) HPV Assays in South African HIV-Infected Women. Am J Clin Pathol. 2017 Aug 01; 148(2):148-153. PMID: 28898982.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Schnippel K, Firnhaber C, Berhanu R, Page-Shipp L, Sinanovic E. Adverse drug reactions during drug-resistant TB treatment in high HIV prevalence settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2017 Jul 01; 72(7):1871-1879. PMID: 28419314.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Goeieman BJ, Firnhaber CS, Jong E, Michelow P, Kegorilwe P, Swarts A, Williamson AL, Allan B, Smith JS, Wilkin TJ. Prevalence of Anal HPV and Anal Dysplasia in HIV-Infected Women From Johannesburg, South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 Jul 01; 75(3):e59-e64. PMID: 28141783.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Rayne S, Schnippel K, Benn C, Kruger D, Wright K, Firnhaber C. The Effect of Access to Information on Beliefs Surrounding Breast Cancer in South Africa. J Cancer Educ. 2017 May 24. PMID: 28540645.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Rohner E, Sengayi M, Goeieman B, Michelow P, Firnhaber C, Maskew M, Bohlius J. Cervical cancer risk and impact of Pap-based screening in HIV-positive women on antiretroviral therapy in Johannesburg, South Africa. Int J Cancer. 2017 Aug 01; 141(3):488-496. PMID: 28440019.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Smith JS, Sanusi B, Swarts A, Faesen M, Levin S, Goeieman B, Ramotshela S, Rakhombe N, Williamson AL, Michelow P, Omar T, Hudgens MG, Firnhaber C. A randomized clinical trial comparing cervical dysplasia treatment with cryotherapy vs loop electrosurgical excision procedure in HIV-seropositive women from Johannesburg, South Africa. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017 08; 217(2):183.e1-183.e11. PMID: 28366730.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Rayne S, Lince-Deroche N, Hendrickson C, Shearer K, Moyo F, Michelow P, Rubin G, Benn C, Firnhaber C. Characterizing breast conditions at an open-access breast clinic in South Africa: a model that is more than cancer care for a resource-limited setting. BMC Health Serv Res. 2017 01 21; 17(1):63. PMID: 28109290.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Mokhele I, Evans D, Schnippel K, Swarts A, Smith JS, Firnhaber C. Awareness, perceived risk and practices related to cervical cancer and Pap smear screening: A cross-sectional study among HIV-positive women attending an urban HIV clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. S Afr Med J. 2016 Dec 01; 106(12):1247-1253. PMID: 27917772.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Schnippel K, Berhanu RH, Black A, Firnhaber C, Maitisa N, Evans D, Sinanovic E. Severe adverse events during second-line tuberculosis treatment in the context of high HIV Co-infection in South Africa: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Infect Dis. 2016 Oct 21; 16(1):593. PMID: 27769174.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Rayne S, Schnippel K, Firnhaber C, Wright K, Kruger D, Benn CA. Fear of Treatments Surpasses Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors in Affecting Patients With Breast Cancer in Urban South Africa. J Glob Oncol. 2017 Apr; 3(2):125-134. PMID: 28717750.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Michelow P, Firnhaber C. HPV vaccination in Southern Africa: A jab of hope in the fight against cervical cancer. Cancer. 2016 Oct; 124(10):695-698. PMID: 27182785.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Schnippel K, Ndjeka N, Conradie F, Berhanu R, Claasen Z, Banoo S, Firnhaber C. A call to action: Addressing the reproductive health needs of women with drug-resistant tuberculosis. S Afr Med J. 2016 Mar 17; 106(4):30-1. PMID: 27032841.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Castillo-Mancilla JR, Aquilante CL, Wempe MF, Smeaton LM, Firnhaber C, LaRosa AM, Kumarasamy N, Andrade A, Baheti G, Fletcher CV, Campbell TB, Haas DW, MaWhinney S, Anderson PL. Pharmacogenetics of unboosted atazanavir in HIV-infected individuals in resource-limited settings: a sub-study of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) PEARLS study (NWCS 342). J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016 06; 71(6):1609-18. PMID: 26892777; PMCID: PMC4867099 [Available on 06/01/17].
    17. Luetkemeyer AF, Firnhaber C, Kendall MA, Wu X, Mazurek GH, Benator DA, Arduino R, Fernandez M, Guy E, Johnson P, Metchock B, Sattler F, Telzak E, Wang YF, Weiner M, Swindells S, Sanne IM, Havlir DV, Grinsztejn B, Alland D. Evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF Versus AFB Smear and Culture to Identify Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Patients With Suspected Tuberculosis From Low and Higher Prevalence Settings. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 May 01; 62(9):1081-8. PMID: 26839383; PMCID: PMC4826450 [Available on 05/01/17].
    18. Michelow P, Sherrin A, Rossouw L, Mohaleamolla S, Evans D, Swarts A, Rakhombe N, Smith JS, Firnhaber C. Performance of the Cellslide® automated liquid-based cytology system amongst HIV-positive women. Afr J Lab Med. 2016; 5(1):278. PMID: 28879102.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Papasavvas E, Surrey LF, Glencross DK, Azzoni L, Joseph J, Omar T, Feldman MD, Williamson AL, Siminya M, Swarts A, Yin X, Liu Q, Firnhaber C, Montaner LJ. High-risk oncogenic HPV genotype infection associates with increased immune activation and T cell exhaustion in ART-suppressed HIV-1-infected women. Oncoimmunology. 2016 May; 5(5):e1128612. PMID: 27467943; PMCID: PMC4910732 [Available on 01/19/17].
    20. Firnhaber C, Goeieman B, Faesen M, Levin S, Williams S, Rameotshela S, Swarts A, Michelow P, Omar T, Williamson AL, Allan B, Schnippel K, Smith JS. Prospective One Year Follow Up of HIV Infected Women Screened for Cervical Cancer Using Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid, Cytology and Human Papillomavirus Testing in Johannesburg South Africa. PLoS One. 2016; 11(1):e0144905. PMID: 26730710; PMCID: PMC4701358.
    21. Schnippel K, Michelow P, Chibwesha CJ, Makura C, Lince-Deroche N, Goeieman B, Mulongo M, Jordaan S, Firnhaber C. Cost-effectiveness of using the Cervex-Brush (broom) compared to the elongated spatula for collection of conventional cervical cytology samples within a high-burden HIV setting: a model-based analysis. BMC Health Serv Res. 2015 Nov 06; 15:499. PMID: 26545585; PMCID: PMC4636771.
    22. Godfrey C, Firnhaber CS, D'Souza G, Heard I. Anal dysplasia in HIV-infected women: a commentary on the field. Int J STD AIDS. 2017 May; 28(6):543-549. PMID: 26538554.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Erlandson KM, Taejaroenkul S, Smeaton L, Gupta A, Singini IL, Lama JR, Mngqibisa R, Firnhaber C, Cardoso SW, Kanyama C, Machado da Silva AL, Hakim JG, Kumarasamy N, Campbell TB, Hughes MD. A Randomized Comparison of Anthropomorphic Changes With Preferred and Alternative Efavirenz-Based Antiretroviral Regimens in Diverse Multinational Settings. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2015 Sep; 2(3):ofv095. PMID: 26213694; PMCID: PMC4512142.
    24. Firnhaber C, Smeaton LM, Grinsztejn B, Lalloo U, Faesen S, Samaneka W, Infante R, Rana A, Kumarasamy N, Hakim J, Campbell TB. Differences in antiretroviral safety and efficacy by sex in a multinational randomized clinical trial. HIV Clin Trials. 2015 May-Jun; 16(3):89-99. PMID: 25979186; PMCID: PMC4604209.
    25. Firnhaber C. Reply to letter to the editor by Sue J. Goldie and Phil E. Castle regarding Evaluation of a cervicography-based program to ensure visual inspection of the cervix in HIV-infected women in Johannesburg, South Africa by Firnhaber et al. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2015 Apr; 19(2):e46-7. PMID: 25811274.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Schnippel K, Lince-Deroche N, van den Handel T, Molefi S, Bruce S, Firnhaber C. Cost evaluation of reproductive and primary health care mobile service delivery for women in two rural districts in South Africa. PLoS One. 2015; 10(3):e0119236. PMID: 25751528; PMCID: PMC4353629.
    27. Firnhaber C, Mao L, Levin S, Faesen M, Lewis DA, Goeieman BJ, Swarts AJ, Rakhombe N, Michelow PM, Williams S, Smith JS. Evaluation of a cervicography-based program to ensure quality of visual inspection of the cervix in HIV-infected women in Johannesburg, South Africa. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2015 Jan; 19(1):7-11. PMID: 24914887; PMCID: PMC4272220.
    28. Kojic EM, Kang M, Cespedes MS, Umbleja T, Godfrey C, Allen RT, Firnhaber C, Grinsztejn B, Palefsky JM, Webster-Cyriaque JY, Saah A, Aberg JA, Cu-Uvin S. Immunogenicity and safety of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in HIV-1-infected women. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Jul 01; 59(1):127-35. PMID: 24723284; PMCID: PMC4305143.
    29. Luetkemeyer AF, Kendall MA, Wu X, Lourenço MC, Jentsch U, Swindells S, Qasba SS, Sanchez J, Havlir DV, Grinsztejn B, Sanne IM, Firnhaber C. Evaluation of two line probe assays for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance, and non-TB Mycobacteria in HIV-infected individuals with suspected TB. J Clin Microbiol. 2014 Apr; 52(4):1052-9. PMID: 24430455; PMCID: PMC3993501.
    30. Westreich D, Jamal N, Smith JS, Schulze D, Williams S, Michelow P, Levin S, Firnhaber C. Injectable and oral contraception and the incidence and progression of cervical disease in HIV-infected women in South Africa. Contraception. 2014 Apr; 89(4):286-91. PMID: 24485095; PMCID: PMC3972316.
    31. Godfrey CC, Michelow PM, Godard M, Sahasrabuddhe VV, Darden J, Firnhaber CS, Wetherall NT, Bremer J, Coombs RW, Wilkin T. Improving diagnostic capability for HPV disease internationally within the NIH-NIAID Division of AIDS Clinical Trial Networks. Am J Clin Pathol. 2013 Dec; 140(6):881-9. PMID: 24225757; PMCID: PMC4017200.
    32. Denslow SA, Rositch AF, Firnhaber C, Ting J, Smith JS. Incidence and progression of cervical lesions in women with HIV: a systematic global review. Int J STD AIDS. 2014 Mar; 25(3):163-77. PMID: 24216030.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Firnhaber C, Mayisela N, Mao L, Williams S, Swarts A, Faesen M, Levin S, Michelow P, Omar T, Hudgens MG, Williamson AL, Allan B, Lewis DA, Smith JS. Validation of cervical cancer screening methods in HIV positive women from Johannesburg South Africa. PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e53494. PMID: 23326441; PMCID: PMC3543403.
    34. Firnhaber C, Wilkin T. Human papillomavirus vaccines: where do they fit in HIV-infected individuals? Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2012 Sep; 9(3):278-86. PMID: 22744002.
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    35. Campbell TB, Smeaton LM, Kumarasamy N, Flanigan T, Klingman KL, Firnhaber C, Grinsztejn B, Hosseinipour MC, Kumwenda J, Lalloo U, Riviere C, Sanchez J, Melo M, Supparatpinyo K, Tripathy S, Martinez AI, Nair A, Walawander A, Moran L, Chen Y, Snowden W, Rooney JF, Uy J, Schooley RT, De Gruttola V, Hakim JG. Efficacy and safety of three antiretroviral regimens for initial treatment of HIV-1: a randomized clinical trial in diverse multinational settings. PLoS Med. 2012; 9(8):e1001290. PMID: 22936892; PMCID: PMC3419182.
    36. Anderson BL, Firnhaber C, Liu T, Swarts A, Siminya M, Ingersoll J, Caliendo AM, Cu-Uvin S. Effect of trichomoniasis therapy on genital HIV viral burden among African women. Sex Transm Dis. 2012 Aug; 39(8):638-42. PMID: 22797689; PMCID: PMC3398383.
    37. Azzoni L, Foulkes AS, Firnhaber C, Yin X, Xiang ZQ, Li Y, Stevens W, Gross R, Ertl HC, Sanne I, Montaner LJ. Antiretroviral therapy interruptions result in loss of protective humoral immunity to neoantigens in HIV-infected individuals. AIDS. 2012 Jul 17; 26(11):1355-62. PMID: 22516873; PMCID: PMC3548620.
    38. Lewis DA, Chirwa TF, Msimang VM, Radebe FM, Kamb ML, Firnhaber CS. Urethritis/cervicitis pathogen prevalence and associated risk factors among asymptomatic HIV-infected patients in South Africa. Sex Transm Dis. 2012 Jul; 39(7):531-6. PMID: 22706215.
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    39. Firnhaber C, Westreich D, Schulze D, Williams S, Siminya M, Michelow P, Levin S, Faesen M, Smith JS. Highly active antiretroviral therapy and cervical dysplasia in HIV-positive women in South Africa. J Int AIDS Soc. 2012 Jun 07; 15(2):17382. PMID: 22713259; PMCID: PMC3499783.
    40. Firnhaber C, Evans D, Friedman-Khalili R, Willliams S, Michelow P, Matlhagela K, Wester C, Grinsztejn B, Lockman S. Seroprevalence of HPV vaccine types 6, 11, 16 and 18 in HIV-infected women from South Africa, Brazil and Botswana. J Clin Virol. 2011 Nov; 52(3):265-8. PMID: 21908233.
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    41. Azzoni L, Foulkes AS, Firnhaber C, Yin X, Crowther NJ, Glencross D, Lawrie D, Stevens W, Papasavvas E, Sanne I, Montaner LJ. Metabolic and anthropometric parameters contribute to ART-mediated CD4+ T cell recovery in HIV-1-infected individuals: an observational study. J Int AIDS Soc. 2011 Jul 29; 14:37. PMID: 21801351; PMCID: PMC3163506.
    42. Firnhaber C, Azzoni L, Foulkes AS, Gross R, Yin X, Van Amsterdam D, Schulze D, Glencross DK, Stevens W, Hunt G, Morris L, Fox L, Sanne I, Montaner LJ. Randomized trial of time-limited interruptions of protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) vs. continuous therapy for HIV-1 infection. PLoS One. 2011; 6(6):e21450. PMID: 21738668; PMCID: PMC3125169.
    43. Denslow SA, Westreich DJ, Firnhaber C, Michelow P, Williams S, Smith JS. Bacterial vaginosis as a risk factor for high-grade cervical lesions and cancer in HIV-seropositive women. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011 Sep; 114(3):273-7. PMID: 21683359.
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    44. Firnhaber C, Sello M, Maskew M, Williams S, Schulze D, Williamson AL, Allan B, Lewis D. Human papillomavirus types in HIV seropositive men with penile warts in Johannesburg, South Africa. Int J STD AIDS. 2011 Feb; 22(2):107-9. PMID: 21427434.
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    45. Firnhaber C, Smeaton L, Saukila N, Flanigan T, Gangakhedkar R, Kumwenda J, La Rosa A, Kumarasamy N, De Gruttola V, Hakim JG, Campbell TB. Comparisons of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia at initiation of HIV antiretroviral therapy in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Int J Infect Dis. 2010 Dec; 14(12):e1088-92. PMID: 20961784; PMCID: PMC3021118.
    46. Azzoni L, Crowther NJ, Firnhaber C, Foulkes AS, Yin X, Glencross D, Gross R, Kaplan MD, Papasavvas E, Schulze D, Stevens W, van der Merwe T, Waisberg R, Sanne I, Montaner LJ. Association between HIV replication and serum leptin levels: an observational study of a cohort of HIV-1-infected South African women. J Int AIDS Soc. 2010 Sep 07; 13:33. PMID: 20822522; PMCID: PMC2941743.
    47. Michelow P, Hartman I, Schulze D, Lamla-Hillie S, Williams S, Levin S, Firnhaber C. Atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial (ASC-H) in HIV-positive women. Cytojournal. 2010 Jun 12; 7:8. PMID: 20607095; PMCID: PMC2895880.
    48. Firnhaber C, Van Le H, Pettifor A, Schulze D, Michelow P, Sanne IM, Lewis DA, Williamson AL, Allan B, Williams S, Rinas A, Levin S, Smith JS. Association between cervical dysplasia and human papillomavirus in HIV seropositive women from Johannesburg South Africa. Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Mar; 21(3):433-43. PMID: 19949850; PMCID: PMC2835728.
    49. du Plessis CD, Aden AA, Firnhaber C, Sanne I. Complex regional pain syndrome in a HIV seropositive patient starting antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Rheumatol. 2009 Oct; 15(7):371-2. PMID: 20009979.
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    50. Firnhaber C, Zungu K, Levin S, Michelow P, Montaner LJ, McPhail P, Williamson AL, Allan BR, Van der Horst C, Rinas A, Sanne I. Diverse and high prevalence of human papillomavirus associated with a significant high rate of cervical dysplasia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women in Johannesburg, South Africa. Acta Cytol. 2009 Jan-Feb; 53(1):10-7. PMID: 19248549; PMCID: PMC2922752.
    51. Firnhaber C, Viana R, Reyneke A, Schultze D, Malope B, Maskew M, Di Bisceglie A, MacPhail P, Sanne I, Kew M. Occult hepatitis B virus infection in patients with isolated core antibody and HIV co-infection in an urban clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. Int J Infect Dis. 2009 Jul; 13(4):488-92. PMID: 19081280; PMCID: PMC3016468.
    52. Firnhaber C, Reyneke A, Schulze D, Malope B, Maskew M, MacPhail P, Sanne I, Di Bisceglie A. The prevalence of hepatitis B co-infection in a South African urban government HIV clinic. S Afr Med J. 2008 Jul; 98(7):541-4. PMID: 18785395; PMCID: PMC3008405.
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